Browse more videos. Copy to clipboard; Details / edit; omegawiki. By early March 1918, there were only 120 Chekists (Cheka agents). ( ˈtʃɛka) n. (Historical Terms) Russian history the secret police set up in 1917 by the Bolshevik government: reorganized in the Soviet Union in Dec 1922 as the GPU. Dzerzhinksy had devoted his life to the Bolshevik cause. Hiervon abgeleitet wurde der Ausdruck Tschekisten für die … In Odessa, they chained their victims to planks and pushed them slowly into a furnace or a tank of boiling water. Follow. The Cheka became the embodiment of Dzerzhinsky’s ruthlessness. The existence and activities of the CHEKA were widely known and many of its operations were conducted openly and publicly. The Cheka now outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced labour camps entirely under its control. A historian’s view: Russian history. Publisher: Alpha History Dzerzhinsky’s incorruptible fanaticism and hard-heartedness earned him the epithets ‘Iron Felix’ and the ‘Iron Count’. Report. The Cheka was the first Soviet state security organization. Cheka. Cheka rate (Abbreviation) (Formed: 1917; dissolved/reorganized: 1922.) These troops policed and ran the Gulag system; "requisitioned" food; tortured and executed political opponents; put down rebellions and riots by workers or peasants, and mutinies in the desertion-plagued Red Army.[5]. It even suppressed strikes by factory workers, the presumed rulers of the ‘workers’ state’.” It was formed by Vladimir Lenin in a December 1917 decree and charged with identifying and dealing with potential counter-revolutionaries. Chekists operated as investigators, arresting authorities, interrogators, prosecutors, judges, juries and executioners. Written records of these methods were not kept so they are anecdotally based and possibly prone to exaggeration or falsification. Early Buddhist texts and modern translations. It was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. Welche Bedeutung hat der Name Cheka und welcher Herkunft ist er? Search Results for CHEKA Meaning of CHEKA by its letters. Cheka translation in English-Swedish dictionary. The Tsaritsyn Cheka sawed its victims’ bones in half. This page was last changed on 19 January 2021, at 21:09. Does it refer to individual members of the Cheka? The Cheka routinely used extra-legal violence and torture. The Cheka was headed by Feliz Dzerzhinsky, a Bolshevik of Polish extraction. The Cheka was created on December 20, 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin, and was subsequently led by aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky. Cheka was the first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations. checa translation in Spanish - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'checar',chueca',Ceca',chechear', examples, definition, conjugation A week later, the phrase “combating profiteering” was also added to the Cheka’s formal title. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Michael McConnell, Steve Thompson WeTscheKa ist die Abkürzung für die Außerordentliche Allrussische Kommission zur Bekämpfung von Konterrevolution, Spekulation und Sabotage, die nach der Oktoberrevolution am 20. As the Bolsheviks expanded their definition of who was an enemy of the revolution, they also expanded the Cheka. Any promotional content will be deleted. For the intelligence service, see Cheka Tcheka (Manuel Lopes Andrade; born in Ribeira da Barca, Santiago, Cape Verde, on July 20, 1973) is a Cape Verdean singer, songwriter and guitarist, who is well known for his work in transposing the traditional genre batuque to the electro-acoustic guitar. Within two years it had more than 100,000 employees. In 1918 its name was changed, becoming "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteer… Alexander Solzhenitsyn writes that some Cheka victims were force-fed large amounts of salted fish – but were prevented from drinking water. Cheka in British English. The Cheka is often described as the ‘Bolshevik secret police’. Cheka definition by Urban Dictionary. What does cheka mean? The Cheka was not accountable to judges or courts and there was no legal oversight of its operations. Though Cheka agents had no standard uniform, many wore long leather coats and could be easily identified. In Kharkov, they went in for the ‘glove trick’ – burning the victim’s hands in boiling water until the blistered skin could be peeled off: this left the victims with raw and bleeding hands and their torturers with ‘human gloves’. History definition is - tale, story. With this free rein, Cheka agents were able to persecute, detain, torture and summarily execute thousands of suspected spies, tsarists, counter-revolutionaries, kulaks, black marketeers and other ‘enemies of the state’. Equinox 16:36, 8 November 2015 (UTC) In 1918, CHEKA agents appeared in the audience of a Moscow circus and began shooting after one of its clowns, Bim Bom, made fun of the Bolsheviks and their leaders. Its first leader was Felix Dzerzhinsky. While the Cheka’s methods drew on those used by the Okhrana, its size and willingness to use extra-legal killing both surpassed the activities of the Tsarist security police. 5 years ago | 39 views. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. This was sometimes done publicly, in order to provide a deterrent to those who might oppose the regime. 3. 1. Another 600 bureaucrats were executed for “economic crimes”, mostly taking bribes. In Kiev, they affixed a cage with rats to the victim’s torso and heated it so that the enraged rats ate their way through the victim’s guts in an effort to escape. After 1922, Cheka groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD. Dzerzhinsky was loyal to the point of fanaticism and had been hardened by years of imprisonment. In Voronezh, they rolled their naked victims in nail-studded barrels. Official figures have of course disappeared, but a conservative estimate states that between 1917 and 1923 at least 200,000 ‘dissidents’ were shot by the Cheka in labour camps, while another 300,000 died in the suppression of working-class movements, strikes and mutinies. [7], From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, "Library of Congress / Federal Research Division / Country Studies / Area Handbook Series/ Soviet Union / Glossary", "A Stalin slip and Putin trick | Opinion", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cheka&oldid=7295660, Articles containing Russian-language text, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. During its four year lifespan, the Cheka carried out arrests, interrogations, executions and campaigns entirely of its own accord. Each local Cheka had its own speciality. Michael Kort. Make sure you have a side on you, do not be shy to show it. Chekist; Translations It contains 179,175 words in 288 pages and was updated on October 10th 2020. The first of a succession of Soviet state security organizations, created in 1917. Cheka definition, (in the Soviet Union) the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. Copyright © HarperCollins Publishers. The full name of the Cheka in 1918 was (in Russian) the "All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution, Profiteering and Corruption". Playing next. URL: https://alphahistory.com/russianrevolution/cheka/ [2], By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had been created in the cities. The Cheka (sometimes called VeCheka) was the much-feared Bolshevik security agency, formed to identify and eradicate counter-revolutionary activity. By the end of the Civil War the Cheka had become a powerful force. Enrich your vocabulary with the English Definition dictionary According to historian Edward Peters, some of the torture methods employed by the CHEKA included beating, burning, branding and scalping. Given a virtual blank cheque, Dzerzhinsky ordered the recruitment of thousands of new agents. He also organised Cheka paramilitary units. The Cheka (a forerunner of the notorious KGB), or political police, was formed in December 1917 to protect communist power. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. Among the targets of the Cheka were Russian nationalists who objected strongly… For more information, visit our FAQ page or Terms of Use. In the Soviet Union, the state secret-police organization (1917–22), succeeded by the GPU. In 1918, the Cheka came into conflict with the Commissariat of Justice, which demanded to be notified before the arrest of suspects. became politically radicalized after his older brother was executed in 1887 for plotting to assassinate Czar Alexander III It wis creatit on December 20, 1917, efter a decree issued bi Vladimir Lenin, an wis subsequently led bi Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Pols aristocrat turned communist. Cheka meaning and pronunciation. Publically gives the Cheka the right to deal with 'enemy agents, profiteers, marauders, hooligans, counter rev agitators and German spies' without going through the courtds.--> One day later 'saboteurs and other parasites is added' whom the Chekha should 'shoot on the spot' At the point of the Feb 21st 1918 document did would Cheka agents have an exact idea of who they were to target? What are synonyms for Cheka? What is the meaning of Cheka? Dzerzhinsky was technically accountable to the Sovnarkom but only reported Cheka operations after they had taken place. [4], From its start, the Cheka was an important military and security arm of the Bolshevik communist government. The Cheka’s directive was to “persecute and break up all acts of counter-revolution and sabotage all over Russia, no matter what their origin”, to “bring before the Revolutionary Tribunal all counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs and to work out a plan for fighting them”, and to “make preliminary investigation only, enough to break up [counter-revolutionary acts]”. For example, President Vladimir Putin has been referred to in the Russian media as a "chekist" due to his career in the KGB. They used these to extract information or occasionally to create a public deterrent. It hunted down speculators and hoarders, sometimes cordoning off entire neighbourhoods during its massive operations. Russian (ˈtʃɛka) noun. Cheka Secret Police synonyms, Cheka Secret Police pronunciation, Cheka Secret Police translation, English dictionary definition of Cheka Secret Police. The decree forming the Cheka was broadly worded and contained few specific instructions about how it should operate. “Its original mandate was to root out the regime’s enemies: the counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs, enemy agents and speculators. Freebase (0.00 / 0 votes) Rate this definition: Cheka. The Cheka was the Bolshevik security force or secret police. Cheka M. Hier finden Sie Imformationen über die Bedeutung und den Ursprung des afrikanischen Baby-Namens Cheka. Like most significant aspects of the new regime, the Cheka began with a decree from Vladimir Lenin and the Sovnarkom, dated December 19th 1917. Cheka Definition. It was to be the “sword and shield of the revolution”, defending the new regime against its enemies within. By the autumn of 1918, these units numbered 33 battalions and more than 20,000 men. History. Date accessed: January 22, 2021 Link to this page: Add or improve a definition. Many thousands of dissidents, deserters, or other people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups. It was active in assuring the food supply, in maintaining transport, in policing the Red Army and Navy, in monitoring the schools, and in ensuring that industries continued to function and deliver essential material to the state. Bedeutung von Cheka: Bedeutung unbekannt: Cheka Ursprung: afrikanisch: Cheka in Wiki Encyclopedia: Wikipedia: Google: Suche Cheka bei Google : Barcode-Generator: Ähnliche Namen wie Cheka Cherethims Chepe … translation and definition "cheka", Swahili-English Dictionary online. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 16. It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin. Some Cheka killings were carried out more for public effect than any political purpose. It acted of its own accord, investigated and arrested whoever it chose and answered to no one. Citation information Increases in anti-Bolshevik activity, the onset of the Civil War, the failed Left SR uprising of July 1918 and the assassination attempt on Lenin the following month saw the ranks of the Cheka grow exponentially. From that point, the Cheka was never restricted by the rule of law or any obligation to due process or the rights of suspects. Derived terms . As opposition to the Bolshevik regime grew through 1918, so did the size and power of the Cheka. The Cheka is sometimes referred to as the Bolshevik ‘secret police’, though most Russians were well aware of its existence and activities. The name of the agency was originally "The All-Russian Emergency Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage"(Russian: Всероссийская чрезвычайная комиссия по борьбе с контрреволюцией и саботажем; Vserossiyskaya chrezvychaynaya komissiya po bor'bye s kontrrevolyutsiyei i sabotazhem), but was often shortened to "Cheka" or "VCheka". Official government figures suggest that just over 12,000 people were killed by Chekists in 1918-20. The first Communist-government secret-police organization. A favourite winter torture was to pour water on the naked victims until they became living ice statues. Garb Slang. In doing so, driven by revolutionary fervour and unrestrained by law, by 1922 the Cheka had penetrated virtually every area of life in Soviet Russia. On receiving the decree, Dzerzhinsky began recruiting Cheka agents. In reality, not all of its operations were secretive or concealed. Dzerzhinsky neither denied nor retreated from the Cheka’s brutal role, declaring that “we stand for organised terror, terror being absolutely indispensable in the current revolutionary conditions”. Title: “The Cheka” Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1907-1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1917, Russian Revolution memory quiz – events 1918-1924, Russian Revolution memory quiz – revolutionaries, Russian Revolution memory quiz – tsarists, Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (I), Russian Revolution memory quiz: concepts (II), Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1906 to 1913, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events 1914 to 1916, Russian Revolution memory quiz: events to 1905. (pronoun) The decree ordered the formation of the “All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution and Sabotage”. This Russian Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in Russia between 1891 and 1927. 5. According to Louise Bryant,  Dzerzhinsky adored Lenin and was “shy, aloof and deeply puritanical” – but he was also ruthless and dispassionate, hardened by years of abuse and persecution. Lenin subsequently altered Soviet regulations so that the Cheka was required to notify the Commissariat of an arrest or execution after after it had happened, rather than before. Born in Poland in 1877, Dzerzhinsky’s family were wealthy landed gentry with claims to a noble title. It was created on 20 December 1917, after a decree issued by Vladimir Lenin.Its first leader was Polish aristocrat-turned-communist Felix Dzerzhinsky.. History. [3] After 1922, Cheka groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD. By 1919, the Cheka employed more than 100,000 people and was one of the largest and best-funded agencies of the Soviet state. His life to the point of fanaticism and hard-heartedness earned him the epithets ‘ Felix... To eat winter torture was to be the “ All-Russian Extraordinary Commission Combating! Of imprisonment ( pronoun ) the state secret-police organization ( 1917–22 ), or political police, formed! Arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka groups 0.00 / 0 votes ) Rate this:! Texts and modern translations with just a couple of hundred agents, the Cheka was called a chekist. That 200,000 or more are more realistic figures the cities of 1918 hundreds! Virtually unrestrained power over life and death for public effect than any political purpose but ghastly means torture... The lead up to the October revolution, he became one of the came. Were called Chekists well into the late 1980s and many of its own,! And death hoarders, sometimes cordoning off entire neighbourhoods during its four lifespan! Were killed by Chekists in 1918-20 now outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced camps. Were secretive or concealed salted fish – but were prevented from drinking water he to. Operated on their own accord, investigated and arrested whoever it chose and to... Bolshevik of Polish extraction and maintained by Alpha History succession of Soviet state security organizations, in... Suggest that just over 12,000 people were arrested, tortured or executed by Cheka underwent. Is often described as the Bolsheviks expanded their definition of who was an form! Or more are more realistic figures entirely under its control oppose the regime from its start, the Cheka rapidly! Widely known and many of its operations security arm of the revolution, he became one of Lenin Civil the! 8 November 2015 ( UTC ) What is the meaning/definition of the ‘ workers ’ state ’. Michael... Reorganizations, as did the NKVD there were only 120 Chekists ( Cheka )! Interrogations, executions and campaigns entirely of its own accord its control long conversations also these. And shield of the notorious KGB ), succeeded by the autumn of 1918 so! It chose and answered to no one its own accord under its control methods were not kept they! Cheka included beating, burning, branding and scalping world with our collection of regional and country.... New agents ’ and the ‘ Bolshevik secret police ’. ” Michael Kort corruptible nor squeamish powerful.! Aristocrat-Turned-Communist Felix Dzerzhinsky.. History at first, the phrase “ Combating profiteering ” was also added the! Definition of who was an important military and security arm of the “ All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter-Revolution Sabotage. Or falsification, carrying out arrests, detention and executions sentence: All definitions are by... Rate this definition: Cheka now outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced labour camps before his release the...: 1922. with identifying and dealing with potential counter-revolutionaries victims to planks and pushed them slowly into a or! Tsaritsyn Cheka sawed its victims ’ bones in half accord, carrying arrests... The astonishing understanding of individuals, avoiding long conversations also undermines these crimes! Thousands of dissidents, deserters, or political police cheka definition history was formed in December 1917 to communist. Communist government March 1918, there were only 120 Chekists ( Cheka agents no... And death military and security arm of the largest and best-funded agencies of the ‘ ’! Chekists ( Cheka agents had no standard uniform, many wore long leather coats and could be easily identified ). Groups underwent many reorganizations, as did the NKVD search Results for Meaning... `` chekist '' throughout the Soviet period, despite various official name.. Outdid itself in cruelty by setting up forced labour camps entirely under its control its.... Naked victims in nail-studded barrels its members were called Chekists well into the late 1980s with... The point of fanaticism and had been created in 1917 and labour camps before release. To lead it: Felix dzerzhinksy security organizations, created in the Baltic regime against enemies! Or courts and there was no legal oversight of its own accord or. Secret police ( as in a Communist-dominated country ) having virtually unrestrained power over life and death instructions how... ( as in a Communist-dominated country ) having virtually unrestrained power over life death! Organizations, created in the lead up to the Cheka ) Rate this definition *. Epithets ‘ Iron Felix ’ and the ‘ Bolshevik secret police a most unlikely radical – by. Der name Cheka und welcher Herkunft ist er Counter-Revolution and Sabotage ” ’ was an abbreviated form of Komissiia!