“iloc” in pandas is used to select rows and columns by number, in the order that they appear in the DataFrame. When analyzing data, we are likely to take some conditions into consideration. We will use Pandas coliumns function get the names of the columns. Please use ide.geeksforgeeks.org, Select Rows & Columns by Name or Index in Pandas DataFrame using [ ], loc & iloc. It can be selecting all the rows and the particular number of columns, a particular number of rows, and all the columns or a particular number of rows and columns each. This often has the added benefit of using less memory on your computer (when removing columns you don’t need), as well as reducing the amount of columns you need to keep track of mentally. This is because you can’t: Check out some other Python tutorials on datagy, including our complete guide to styling Pandas and our comprehensive overview of Pivot Tables in Pandas! 01, Sep 20. In this tutorial, we’ll look at how to select one or more columns in a pandas dataframe through some examples. provides metadata) using known indicators, important for analysis, visualization, and interactive console display.. Leave a Comment / By Shane. Select a single column as a Series by passing the column name directly to it: df['col_name'] Select multiple columns as a DataFrame by passing a list to it: df[['col_name1', 'col_name2']] Kite is a free autocomplete for Python developers. That means if we pass df.iloc [6, 0], that means the 6th index row (row index starts from 0) and 0th column, which is the Name. Categories. That means if you wanted to select the first item, we would use position 0, not 1. It is the basic object storing axis labels. 06, Dec 18. Example 1: Print DataFrame Column Names. If we wanted to select all columns with iloc, we could do that by writing: Similarly, we could select all rows by leaving out the first values (but including a colon before the comma). df.loc[df[‘Color’] == ‘Green’]Where: Code: Example 2: to select multiple rows. close, link Depending on your use case, you can pick the best one for you. Python Select Columns. Let us first load Pandas. You’ll learn a ton of different tricks for selecting columns using handy follow along examples. Pandas - Remove special characters from column names. 18, Aug 20. Email Address . You can select them by their names or their indexes. Get some data updates! Alternatively, you may apply the second approach by adding my_list = df.columns… Select multiple Columns by Name in DataFrame using loc[] Pass column names as list, # Select only 2 columns from dataFrame and create a new subset DataFrame columnsData = dfObj.loc[ : , ['Age', 'Name'] ] It will return a subset DataFrame with same indexes but selected columns only i.e. Let’s create a simple dataframe with a list of tuples, say column names are: ‘Name’, ‘Age’, ‘City’ and ‘Salary’. For example, if we wanted to create a filtered dataframe of our original that only includes the first four columns, we could write: This is incredibly helpful if you want to work the only a smaller subset of a dataframe. Inline Feedbacks. Get column index from column name of a given Pandas DataFrame. If you have a DataFrame and would like to access or select a specific few rows/columns from that DataFrame, you can use square brackets or other advanced methods such as loc and iloc. There are many ways to use this function. Remove spaces from column names in Pandas. The dataframe.columns.isin() selects the columns which are passed into the function as an argument. Python - Extract ith column values from jth column values. If you want to rename only one column in pandas then you can do it using the rename() method. pandas.DataFrame.rename(columns={'old_column_name':'new_column_name'}) I use this function … For example, to select only the Name column, you can write: Similarly, you can select columns by using the dot operator. Indexing is also known as Subset selection. Code: Example 2: To select multiple rows. data = pd.read_csv("nba.csv", index_col ="Name") # retrieving columns by indexing operator . Get column names from CSV using Python. Age Name a … How to Select Rows from Pandas DataFrame? Below is the example for python to find the list of column names-sorted(dataframe) Show column titles python using the sorted function 4. Let’s look at some of the different ways in which we can select columns of a dataframe using their names – 1. Check out my ebook! You can access the column names using index. You can pass the column name as a string to the indexing operator. We can perform many arithmetic operations on the DataFrame on both rows and columns, depending on our needs. The Example. Fortunately you can use pandas filter to select columns and it is very useful. 24, Nov 20 . Selecting Columns Using Square Brackets. Here are two approaches to get a list of all the column names in Pandas DataFrame: First approach: my_list = list(df) Second approach: my_list = df.columns.values.tolist() Later you’ll also see which approach is the fastest to use. Just something to keep in mind for later. How to create an empty DataFrame and append rows & columns to it in Pandas? Single Selection Experience. Rename columns in pandas by position Rename one column in pandas. code. 25, Feb 20. We will use Pandas coliumns function get the names of the columns. Using follow-along examples, you learned how to select columns using the loc method (to select based on names), the iloc method (to select based on column/row numbers), and, finally, how to create copies of your dataframes. But this isn’t true all the time. By using our site, you The second way to select one or more columns of a Pandas dataframe is to use.loc accessor in Pandas. This can be done by selecting the column as a series in Pandas. Code: Example 2: to select multiple columns. Get DataFrame Column Names. Pandas Dataframe.to_numpy() - Convert dataframe to Numpy array. This article explores all the different ways you can use to select columns in Pandas, including using loc, iloc, and how to create copies of dataframes. filter_none. Score year 0.029827 yesterday 0.029827 you 0.089482 zeros 0.029827 zones 0.029827 I have another df having a column named df['keywords'] having various keywords. Therefore, ~dataframe.columns.isin() will exclude the column which is passed as an argument and it will select rest of the columns. You can perform the same task using the dot operator. Tables can be newly created, appended to, or overwritten. A Python DataFrame consists of rows and columns and the Pandas module offers us various functions to manipulate and deal with the data occupied within these rows and columns. One of the common tasks in data analysis is to use the names of columns frequently for a number of reasons. That is called a pandas Series. churn[['CustomerId', 'Geography']] (image by author) Selecting rows that fit a condition. You also learned how to make column selection easier, when you want to select all rows. Let us get the boolean array from the column names to find which column names start … play_arrow. View all comments. Example. You can use the following logic to select rows from Pandas DataFrame based on specified conditions: df.loc[df[‘column name’] condition]For example, if you want to get the rows where the color is green, then you’ll need to apply:. Simply copy the code and paste it into your editor or notebook. iloc[ ] is used for selection based on position. Add Column to Pandas DataFrame with a Default Value. Select data using “iloc” The iloc syntax is data.iloc[, ]. Now, if you want to select just a single column, there’s a much easier way than using either loc or iloc. Create a Pandas DataFrame from a Numpy array and specify the index column and column headers. SELECT CustomerId, Geography FROM CHURN; (image by author) It is done as follows for Pandas. Code: Method 2: Using Dataframe.loc[ ]. Python Program. import pandas as pd # making data frame from csv file . You can pass the column name as a string to the indexing operator. Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Enables automatic and explicit data alignment. Pandas allows you to select a single column as a Series by using dot notation. To accomplish this, simply append .copy() to the end of your assignment to create the new dataframe. Indexing in Pandas means selecting rows and columns of data from a Dataframe. Indexing and selecting data¶. Selected Column ----- 0 57 1 43 2 85 Name: a, dtype: int64 The selected column is of class type pandas.core.series.Series. However, having the column names as a list is useful in many situation. The easiest and most popular one will be done via the .rename() method. In this post we will see how to get the column names as a list. How to Convert Wide Dataframe to Tidy Dataframe with Pandas stack()? Dealing with Rows and Columns in Pandas DataFrame, Iterating over rows and columns in Pandas DataFrame, Drop rows from Pandas dataframe with missing values or NaN in columns, Get the number of rows and number of columns in Pandas Dataframe. Use columns that have the same names as dataframe methods (such as ‘type’). It can select a subset of rows and columns. To do this, simply wrap the column names in double square brackets. Let’s take a quick look at what makes up a dataframe in Pandas: The loc function is a great way to select a single column or multiple columns in a dataframe if you know the column name(s). Method 3: Selecting rows of Pandas Dataframe based on multiple column conditions using ‘&’ operator. We’ll create one that has multiple columns, but a small amount of data (to be able to print the whole thing more easily). For SQL, we just need to replace “*” with the column names. In this article, I will show you four ways to retrieve column names in a Pandas dataframe. “iloc” in pandas is used to select rows and columns by number in the order that they appear in the DataFrame. If a column is not contained in the DataFrame, an exception will be raised. Both row and column numbers start from 0 in python. In this example, we get the dataframe column names and print them. This is also referred to as attribute access . To do the same as above using the dot operator, you could write: However, using the dot operator is often not recommended (while it’s easier to type). Add column with constant value to pandas dataframe. Example1: Selecting all the rows from the given Dataframe in which ‘Age’ is equal to 22 and ‘Stream’ is present in the options list using [ ] . In this post, we will first see how to extract the names of columns from a dataframe. To find the columns labels of a given DataFrame, use Pandas DataFrame columns property. Post navigation ← Previous Media. Now, we can use these names to access specific columns by name without having to know which column number it is. 10, Dec 20. To deal with columns… Databases supported by SQLAlchemy are supported. The standard format of the iloc method looks like this: Now, for example, if we wanted to select the first two rows and first three columns of our dataframe, we could write: Note that we didn’t write df.iloc[0:2,0:2], but that would have yielded the same result. Subscribe . In order to avoid this, you’ll want to use the .copy() method to create a brand new object, that isn’t just a reference to the original. pandas get columns. Example 1 : to select single column. We use single colon [ : ] to select all rows and list of columns which we want to select as given below : Method 3: Using Dataframe.iloc[ ]. Pandas Tutorials. Now, if you want to select just a single column, there’s a much easier way than using either loc or iloc. Code faster with the Kite plugin for your code editor, featuring Line-of-Code Completions and cloudless processing. We’ll need to import pandas and create some data. Method #1: Basic Method Given a dictionary which contains Employee entity as keys and … Method 1: using Dataframe. In Python, the equal sign (“=”), creates a reference to that object. 22, Jul 20. pandas documentation: Select from MultiIndex by Level. .loc[] the function selects the data by labels of rows or columns. Convert the column type … Whereas, when we extracted portions of a pandas dataframe like we did earlier, we got a two-dimensional DataFrame type of object. This is a quick and easy way to get columns. Get unique values from a column in Pandas … Similar to the code you wrote above, you can select multiple columns. To select the first column 'fixed_acidity', you can pass the column name as a string to the indexing operator. Pandas returns the names of columns as Pandas Index object. In this example, we will select a column from Pandas DataFrame using square brackets []. Apply a function to single or selected columns or rows in Pandas Dataframe, Find maximum values & position in columns and rows of a Dataframe in Pandas, Sort rows or columns in Pandas Dataframe based on values, Data Structures and Algorithms – Self Paced Course, Ad-Free Experience – GeeksforGeeks Premium, We use cookies to ensure you have the best browsing experience on our website. This method selects all the columns that contain the substring foo and it could be placed in at any point of a column's name. In this example, there are 11 columns that are float and one column that is an integer. Code: Attention geek! Want to learn Python for Data Science? But look below for 2 other ways. Let’s start by creating a relatively simple dataset. generate link and share the link here. To select multiple columns, you can pass a list of column names to the indexing operator. Basic idea is that Pandas str function can be used get a numpy boolean array to select column names containing or starting with or ending with some pattern. Python | Pandas DataFrame.fillna() to replace Null values in dataframe . Capitalize first letter of a column in Pandas dataframe. Example 2: Select a column using Square Brackets. pandas.DataFrame.to_sql¶ DataFrame.to_sql (name, con, schema = None, if_exists = 'fail', index = True, index_label = None, chunksize = None, dtype = None, method = None) [source] ¶ Write records stored in a DataFrame to a SQL database. Get unique values from a column in Pandas DataFrame. comprehensive overview of Pivot Tables in Pandas, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yFox2cReTw&t, Selecting columns using a single label, a list of labels, or a slice. Pandas - Remove special characters from column names. Categories. Select a Single Column in Pandas. edit If you wanted to select the Name, Age, and Height columns, you would write: What’s great about this method, is that you can return columns in whatever order you want. We can get the columns of a data frame using columns function # get column names of Pandas dataframe >gapminder.columns Index(['country', 'year', 'pop', 'continent', 'lifeExp', 'gdpPercap'], dtype='object') Selecting first N columns in Pandas Example 4: To select all the rows with some particular columns. It can be selecting all the rows and the particular number of columns, a particular number of rows, and all the columns or a particular number of rows and columns each. This can be done by selecting the column as a series in Pandas. Strengthen your foundations with the Python Programming Foundation Course and learn the basics. In this case, you’ll want to select out a number of columns. If you wanted to select multiple columns, you can include their names in a list: Additionally, you can slice columns if you want to return those columns as well as those in between. However, that’s not the case! Get column names from CSV using Python. DataFrame is in the tabular form mostly. How to select the rows of a dataframe using the indices of another dataframe? Note: Indexes in Pandas start at 0. 01, Sep 20. In this Pandas tutorial, we will learn 6 methods to get the column names from Pandas dataframe.One of the nice things about Pandas dataframes is that each column will have a name (i.e., the variables in the dataset). Using my_list = df.columns.values.tolist() to Get the List of all Column Names in Pandas DataFrame. Different ways to select columns Selecting a single column. Remove spaces from column names in Pandas. Get Pandas column name By iteration – Python … Pandas Columns. It is similar to loc[] indexer but it takes only integer values to make selections. The easiest way to select a column from a dataframe in Pandas is to use name of the column of interest. This method will not work. Then we can use the boolean array to select the columns using Pandas loc function. [ ] is used to select a column by mentioning the respective column name. The iloc function is one of the primary way of selecting data in Pandas. For example, I want to rename the column name “cyl” with CYL then I will use the following code. Pandas is one of those packages and makes importing and analyzing data much easier.. Let’s discuss all different ways of selecting multiple columns in a pandas DataFrame.. How to add Empty Column to Dataframe in Pandas? 10, Dec 20. Step 3: Select Rows from Pandas DataFrame. The data you work with in lots of tutorials has very clean data with a limited number of columns. For example, To select only the float columns, use wine_df.select_dtypes(include = ['float']). In order to select a single column, we simply put the name of the column in-between the brackets. How to Select One Column from Dataframe in Pandas? link brightness_4 code # importing pandas package . import pandas as pd #initialize a dataframe df = pd.DataFrame( [['Amol', … Indexing in Pandas means selecting rows and columns of data from a Dataframe. 03, Jul 18. Get n-smallest values from a particular column in Pandas DataFrame. The dot notation. However, if the column name contains space, such as “User Name”. This can be achieved using dataframe.loc. There are several ways to get columns in pandas. If the name of your index overlaps with a column name, the column name is given precedence. Selecting multiple columns. In many cases, you’ll run into datasets that have many columns – most of which are not needed for your analysis. Note that when you extract a single row or column, you get a one-dimensional object as output. Python | Pandas DataFrame.fillna() to replace Null values in dataframe. The method “iloc” stands for integer location indexing, where rows and columns are selected using their integer positions. Today, we will be having a look at the various different ways through which we can fetch and display the column header/names of a dataframe or a csv file. Pandas get column names: When analyzing large datasets, it may be necessary to obtain column names to perform certain operations on the dataset. Notify of {} [+] {} [+] 0 Comments . Selecting columns using "select_dtypes" and "filter" methods. acknowledge that you have read and understood our, GATE CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Original Papers and Official Keys, ISRO CS Syllabus for Scientist/Engineer Exam, How to get column names in Pandas dataframe, Decimal Functions in Python | Set 2 (logical_and(), normalize(), quantize(), rotate() … ), NetworkX : Python software package for study of complex networks, Directed Graphs, Multigraphs and Visualization in Networkx, Python | Visualize graphs generated in NetworkX using Matplotlib, Box plot visualization with Pandas and Seaborn, Python program to find number of days between two given dates, Python | Difference between two dates (in minutes) using datetime.timedelta() method, Python | Convert string to DateTime and vice-versa, Convert the column type from string to datetime format in Pandas dataframe, Adding new column to existing DataFrame in Pandas, Create a new column in Pandas DataFrame based on the existing columns, Python | Creating a Pandas dataframe column based on a given condition, Selecting rows in pandas DataFrame based on conditions, Flipkart Interview Experience for SDE-2 (3.5 years experienced), Python program to convert a list to string, Reading and Writing to text files in Python, isupper(), islower(), lower(), upper() in Python and their applications, Different ways to create Pandas Dataframe, Python | Program to convert String to a List, Write Interview DataFrame.columns. The axis labeling information in pandas objects serves many purposes: Identifies data (i.e. Code: Example 3: to select multiple rows with some particular columns. We can type df.Country to get the “Country” column. i. In essence, I … Select Rows & Columns by Name or Index in Pandas DataFrame using [ ], loc & iloc, Difference between loc() and iloc() in Pandas DataFrame, Select any row from a Dataframe using iloc[] and iat[] in Pandas, Python | Pandas Extracting rows using .loc[], Python | Extracting rows using Pandas .iloc[], Get minimum values in rows or columns with their index position in Pandas-Dataframe. Because of this, you’ll run into issues when trying to modify a copied dataframe. Sometimes, it is easier to select columns by their location instead of the column names. Select columns in Pandas with loc, iloc, and the indexing operator! The axis labeling information in pandas objects serves many purposes: Identifies data (i.e. 10, Dec 18. brightness_4 Example 1 : to select a single row. I think this mainly because filter sounds like it should be used to filter data not column names. To select columns using select_dtypes method, you should first find out the number of columns for each data types. Retrieve Pandas Column name using sorted() – One of the easiest ways to get the column name is using the sorted() function. Thanks for reading all the way to end of this tutorial! edit close. Each method has its pros and cons, so I would use them differently based on the situation. 12, Aug 20. You only need to decide which method you want to use. 12, Aug 20. provides metadata) ... to select columns in that order. Pandas returns the names of columns as Pandas Index object. Selecting columns by name in Pandas using loc. Pandas Change Column names – Changing column names within pandas is easy. Code: Example 4: to select all the rows with some particular columns. To select all rows and a select columns we use.loc accessor with square bracket. 03, Jul 18. Code: Example 3: To select multiple rows and particular columns. To begin with, your interview preparations Enhance your Data Structures concepts with the Python DS Course. Let us first select columns starting with prefix “lifeExp” using Pandas loc function. df.iloc [, ] This is sure to be a source of confusion for R users. If you wanted to switch the order around, you could just change it in your list: Something important to note for all the methods covered above, it might looks like fresh dataframes were created for each. To get started, let’s create our dataframe to use throughout this tutorial. [ ]. Select columns by name in pandas. Get the list of column headers or column name: Method 1: # method 1: get list of column name list(df.columns.values) The above function gets the column names and converts them to … In the original article, I did not include any information about using pandas DataFrame filter to select columns. It returns an object. Selecting columns by column position (index), Selecting columns using a single position, a list of positions, or a slice of positions. You can access the column names of DataFrame using columns property. Now suppose that you want to select the country column from the brics DataFrame. To select a column in Pandas DataFrame, we can access the columns by calling them by their columns name. For example, to select only the Name column, you can write: selection = df['Name'] print(selection) I need to iterate over this column and search in indices of score_df and if index matches with keyword I need … Headers in pandas using columns attribute 3. Select first or last N rows in a Dataframe using head() and tail() method in Python-Pandas, Python | Delete rows/columns from DataFrame using Pandas.drop(), How to select multiple columns in a pandas dataframe, Select all columns, except one given column in a Pandas DataFrame, Select Columns with Specific Data Types in Pandas Dataframe, How to randomly select rows from Pandas DataFrame. 21, Aug 20. 07, Jul 20. You simply place the name of the column … Subscribe. Writing code in comment? Choose the column you want to rename and pass the new column name. The same code we wrote above, can be re-written like this: Now, let’s take a look at the iloc method for selecting columns in Pandas. Example 1: To select single row. 20, Jul 20. PanAdas.loc [] operator can be used to select rows and columns. Python is a great language for doing data analysis, primarily because of the fantastic ecosystem of data-centric Python packages. https://keytodatascience.com/selecting-rows-conditions-pandas-dataframe df[df.columns[pd.Series(df.columns).str.contains("foo")]] This will be really helpful in case not all the columns you want to select start with foo. In this example, we will use.loc [] to select one or more columns from a data frame. Now, if you wanted to select only the name column and the first three rows, you would write: You’ll probably notice that this didn’t return the column header. I have a DataFrame named score_df having one column named Score and there are names of indices as following. ” ), creates a reference to that object select_dtypes '' and `` filter '' methods data a. Code and paste it into your editor or notebook source of confusion R! Analysis, primarily because of the columns a subset of rows and particular columns name.. Learned how to Convert Wide DataFrame to use name of the columns using Pandas loc function passed. Data = pd.read_csv ( `` nba.csv '', index_col = '' pandas select columns by name )... The respective column pandas select columns by name is given precedence appear in the order that they appear the! By author ) selecting rows that fit a condition post, we are likely to take some conditions into.... ) will exclude the column names function as an argument ’ s look at how to make selection..., 'Geography ' ] ) ) selecting rows and columns of a given Pandas columns... The DataFrame on both rows and columns of data from a column is not contained in the original,. Row selection > ] this is sure to be a source of confusion for R users your index with... Columns from a DataFrame using square brackets [ ] is used for selection based on position we did earlier we! Selecting a single column as a series in Pandas is used to select columns starting with prefix lifeExp. To filter data not column names to access specific columns by number, in the DataFrame column names as series. That means if you wanted to select multiple columns, use wine_df.select_dtypes ( include = 'float... Means if you pandas select columns by name to select rows and particular columns to do,! In the DataFrame your use case, you can use Pandas DataFrame name, the equal sign “! Has its pros and cons, so I would use position 0, not 1 I did not include information... These names to the indexing operator some conditions into consideration select one more! You to select rows and columns can perform the same task using the dot operator generate link share! They appear in the order that they appear in the order that they appear in DataFrame! From column names in Pandas means selecting rows of a column name names of columns as Pandas index object the! Is to use location instead of the columns the names of the names. It using the dot operator your use case, you ’ ll run into datasets that have the same using! 'Old_Column_Name ': 'new_column_name ' } ) I use this function … get column index from column name a. But it takes only integer values to make selections we are likely to take some conditions into consideration to! Selecting data in Pandas objects serves many purposes: Identifies data ( i.e ] the selects! Columns and it will select a column in Pandas objects serves many purposes: Identifies (! To create an empty DataFrame and append rows & columns to it in Pandas will. A free autocomplete for Python developers objects serves many purposes: Identifies (... Dataframe filter to select multiple columns, depending on our needs of which are not needed your. Names of DataFrame using their names or their indexes location instead of the different ways in which we can multiple! Are several ways to get the list of column names in double square brackets [ ] used. Did earlier, we can type df.Country to get the list of all column names as a series using... Integer values to make selections differently based on position many purposes: Identifies data i.e! Each method has its pros and cons, so I would use them differently based on multiple column using! Follow along examples column names to the indexing operator about using Pandas DataFrame and learn the basics can perform same. Blog and receive notifications of new posts by email share the link here is passed as an and! Data by labels of a DataFrame using columns property to Tidy DataFrame with Pandas (! Ide.Geeksforgeeks.Org, generate link and share the link pandas select columns by name trying to modify a copied DataFrame out the number of.... As an argument and it will select a column in Pandas DataFrame using the dot operator `` filter methods! Can type df.Country to get the names of columns as Pandas index object using “ iloc ” stands for location! To take some conditions into consideration number it is easier to select the rows with some columns... We ’ ll run into datasets that have many columns – most of which are passed into function... Both rows and columns of data from a column in Pandas objects serves many purposes: Identifies data (.. It into your editor or notebook multiple columns, use wine_df.select_dtypes ( include = [ 'float ' ]! Different tricks for selecting columns using `` select_dtypes '' and `` filter '' methods cyl with... Relatively simple dataset pd # making data frame from CSV file Pandas column name as a string to the operator... To create an empty DataFrame and append rows & columns to it in Pandas means rows! Integer values to make column selection easier, when you want to rename the column name “ cyl ” cyl... We can use Pandas filter to select all rows in this example, are... Create the new column name as a list is useful in many cases, you can pass a is! Your analysis primarily because of the different ways in which we can access the columns which are not for... Can type df.Country to get the DataFrame did not include any information about Pandas... Most of which are passed into the function as an argument and it is done as for! Dataframe filter to select multiple columns from CSV file a Numpy array language for doing data analysis, visualization and! Ll learn a ton of different tricks for selecting columns using `` select_dtypes '' and `` filter methods. To accomplish this, simply wrap the column names from CSV using.... By number in the original article, I will use Pandas coliumns function get the “ Country ”.! Be a source of confusion for R users Wide DataFrame to Tidy DataFrame with Pandas stack ). Convert DataFrame to Numpy array and specify the index column and column headers loc.... Editor or notebook can use the following code deal with columns… the dataframe.columns.isin ( ) to end!, where rows and columns indices of another DataFrame ) - Convert DataFrame to use throughout this tutorial we... Needed for your code editor, featuring Line-of-Code Completions and cloudless processing this post, are... “ = ” ), creates a reference to that object the column...
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