室町時代, Muromachi jidai; etwa 13361573), auch als Ashikaga-Zeit bezeichnet, ist ein Zeitabschnitt in der japanischen Geschichte. 1333 – It was named for a district in Kyōto, where the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji, established his administrative headquarters. Plants that served as the raw materials in handicraft industries, including sesame, mulberry, and paper mulberry (kaji), also started to be cultivated. The Muromachi period can also be perceived, in general, as an era in which the ancient bastions of power collapsed and new powers rose to prosperity (via gekokujo, the phenomenon of "the lower overthrowing the higher"). Mai 2020 um 20:34 Uhr bearbeitet. Religion in Japan Glossar Muromachi. Although it was at this point that the warrior clans finally reached the pinnacle of power, the bakufu's own financial and military power base was rather weak. Thus, it is typical for one person or family to … However, the armed conflict that began in the Onin War spread out to more rural areas and continued even after the fighting petered out in the capital, and in Kanto, the Kyotoku Incident extended the bloodshed for almost ten additional years after the Onin War ended. The Nichiren sect started to spread in urban areas while the monk Nisshin began proselytizing work in Kyoto, and the townspeople combined forces into large groups of believers and struggling with the secular Doikki (land-based bands of peasants). Nara-Zeit – The period from the reign of Yoshinori ASHIKAGA to the Onin WarAlthough Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA had succeeded in unifying the two courts and solidifying the central power and authority of the bakufu, after his sudden death, the country returned to the old oligarchic daimyo system, and the power of the Shogun waned by comparison. Yoshimitsu 足利義満 (+1358 … Japan trat in eine lange Zeit des Unfriedens ein, die Zeit der streitenden Reiche (Sengoku-jidai). Eine wieder erstarkte Monarchie hätte Machtverluste für die mächtigen Familien bedeutet. Jisho-ji (Ginkaku-ji) Temple, which Yoshimasa had built, is a combination of Zen Buddhist with shoinzukuri-style architecture. Noh theater and Kyogen (Noh farce)Kanami and his son Motokiyo ZEAMI, who both enjoyed the patronage of Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, were able to take the Sarugaku (a style of comedy) and Dengaku (a musical, rhythmic ritual dancing concerned with rice) that had existed from the Kamakura period and perfect them into Noh theater. Regarding Shinto, Kanetomo YOSHIDA created a fusion of religions known as Yoshida Shinto. This only caused Yoshimasa to lose what little interest he had left in politics, prompting him suddenly to relinquish the position of Shogun to Yoshihisa and retire, but the conflict between the two armies continued, and even after the successive natural deaths by illness of each army's supreme commanders, Katsumoto HOSOKAWA and Sozen YAMANA, the various daimyo did not withdraw their forces. Unter der Herrschaft von Ashikaga Yoshimitsu (1358–1408) gelangte das Ashikaga-Shōgunat zu seiner größten Macht. Sie wurde seit 1. International relations of Japan in the Muromachi period‎ (4 C, 1 F) M Military history of Japan‎ (36 C, 36 F) P People of Muromachi period‎ (23 C, 70 F) Media in category "Muromachi period" The following 40 files are in this category, out of 40 total. The Muromachi Period in Japan was characterized by political rivalaries that frequently led to wars, but also by an extraordinary flourishing of Japanese culture. Sakai, a representative example of the free cities in the medieval period, was rated by missionaries in some surviving accounts as 'the Venice of the East,' and continued its autonomy until it was later forced to capitulate to Nobunaga ODA. Es ist die Zeit des Muromachi- beziehungsweise des Ashikaga-Shōgunats. Go-Daigos erste Rebellion im Jahr 1331 war durch die Truppen des Shōguns niedergeschlagen, er selbst auf die Insel Oki verbannt worden. Hence, the Onin War ended without any sort of conclusive victory for either side; the only thing it had accomplished was the near-total destruction of the capital, Kyoto. The Ashikaga shogunate (足利幕府, Ashikaga bakufu, 1336–1573), also known as the Muromachi shogunate (室町幕府, Muromachi bakufu), was the feudal military government of Japan during the Muromachi period from 1338 to 1573.. Events to the north regionsIn the closing days of the Kamakura period, a revolt by the people of Ezo had thrown the Kamakura bakufu into turmoil, and after the bakufu's collapse, the Ando clan had created flourishing strongholds out of thirteen ports, but eventually the Ando clan was brought to ruin by the rising fortunes of the Nanbu clan. Stadtteil in Kyōto; Sitz des Ashikaga Shōgunats 1336–1573 (= Muromachi-Zeit) Ort, Geschichte WaDoku • • • Verwandte Seiten. Pilgrimages to sacred sites devoted to Kannon Bosatsu, to the Ise Shinto shrines, and to the top of Mt. Zu Beginn der Muromachi-Zeit war das von Minamoto no Yoritomo errichtete Shōgunat die zentrale Macht in Japan. Hiei, representing the old guard of influential Buddhist temples, and also implemented the hanzei (half-tax). Shogun Yoshiteru observed these events and resolved, even as he accepted the support of Sengoku daimyo families closely allied with the Shogun, especially Kenshin UESUGI (the Kanrei of the Kanto region), to try to wrest back the power and prestige of the office of Shogun, only to be assassinated during a coup d'etat (known as the Eiroku Incident) by the faction led by Matsunaga, who was the primary target of Yoshiteru's efforts. '. Embassies from Korea: after an envoy and royal missive was sent to Korea by Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, a reply was dispatched to Yoshimitsu via an emissary from Shin (Yoshimi) in 1375, thereby opening official communications. Diese Periode nennt man nanbokuchô, „Dynastien des Nordens und des Südens“. Although the Muromachi period was doctrinally less creative than the preceding Kamakura era, it witnessed a vigorous diffusion and popularization of Buddhism. Viele militärisch bedeutende Familien (allen voran die Ashikaga und die Nitta) strebten den Sturz des Kamakura-Bakufu an. Erst im Jahr 1392 endete dieses Schisma mit der Aufgabe von Go-Daigos Nachfolger. But in his later years he was robbed of any actual power by his chief retainer Hisahide MATSUNAGA, and died of illness soon after. The Muromachi period brought several additions to the local attractions of Japan, the most important probably being the famous Kinkakuji, the Golden Temple, in Kyoto, ordered by the Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu. Dieser Zustand dauerte bis 1392 an. Die Muromachi-Zeit (jap. After the war, the Shogun's former authority transferred to the Kanrei Masamoto HOSOKAWA, who rose to prominence as a figure of tremendous power. But as a result of this series of internal squabbles, the bakufu itself had fallen into decline, and was now capable of exerting control only over the area immediately surrounding Kyoto, transforming into an institution that just barely managed to take the place of the shugo and survive as the titular authority over the Sengoku-period daimyo who each struggled to defend his authority over his own territory. International relationsThe Wako (Japanese pirates) and the arrival of WesternersPirates who held no allegiance to any state, called Wako (Japanese pirates), were active during the Muromachi period; the term "early Wako" is used to describe such pirates in the fourteenth century, while "later Wako" refers to Wako of the fifteenth century. The bakufu's grip on power tightens during Yoshimitsu and Yoshimochi ASHIKAGA's reignsWhen the second Shogun, Yoshiakira ASHIKAGA, died, the Kanrei (regent) Yoriyuki HOSOKAWA gave his support and advice to Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, the third Shogun, and helped usher in a new administration, and engineered Masanori KUSUNOKI's defection and other anti-Southern Court efforts as well as dispatching Sadayo IMAGAWA to Kyushu as part of a push to eliminate the Southern Court's forces there, while in domestic, nonmilitary affairs, he crafted a response to the problematic conflict between Nanzen-ji Temple, which represented the new Zen sect, and Mt. Die Geschichte des Buddhismus (jap. Die Muromachi-Zeit (jap. Unter dem achten Ashikaga-Shōgun Yoshimasa (1443–1473) brach das politische System dann zusammen. Die Muromachi-Zeit überschneidet sich mit der Zeit der streitenden Reiche ab 1477, einem fast 100 Jahre währenden Kriegszustand ohne zentrale Ordnung, an dessen Ende der letzte Ashikaga-Shōgun Ashikaga Yoshiaki 1573 abgesetzt wurde. Research into both Chinese literature and neo-Confucianism was conducted mainly in the Gozan (the five great Zen temples) of Kyoto, leading to the appellation "Gozan literary scholarship. Jetzt traten die Differenzen zwischen den Kriegsherren und dem Kaiser deutlich hervor. ", The third Shogun, Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, had a shogunal palace, the Hana no Gosho (Flower Palace) built for himself on Muromachi street in Kyoto, and successive generations of Shogun continued living there, leading to the Ashikaga Shoguns being called "Muromachi-dono" (the Lord of Muromachi), which led in turn to the bakufu being called the "Muromachi bakufu," and the period the "Muromachi period. Kofun-Zeit – Aber sein Aufbegehren gegen das Shōgunat blieb nicht unbemerkt. The Muromachi age may well emerge in the eyes of historians as one of the most seminal periods in Japanese history. Chokei raised another puppet up to be Harumoto's successor as Kanrei, meanwhile usurping the Kanrei's authority himself, and managed personally to seize the full power and authority of the shogunal government from his position as one of the Shobanshu (Shogunal advisor). „Japanische Geschichtsperioden.“ In: Bernhard Scheid, Religion-in-Japan: Ein digitales Handbuch. He was assassinated by members of his own family over who would be chosen as his successor. But his mercilessly political stance caused a backlash among many, who harbored resentment against his 'reign of terror,' and in the end he was assassinated by Mitsusuke AKAMATSU (in the Kakitsu Rebellion), which led to a steep decline in shogunal power. Die mächtigen Vasallenfamilien kämpften im Ōnin-Krieg (1467–1477) um die Macht. Die Macht lag fortan in den Händen der Ashikaga. Aside from the golden age of prosperity reached under the third seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") Yoshimitsu ASHIKAGA, the Muromachi period was fraught with wars and disorder, but on the other hand, not since before the Kamakura period had there been such opportunity for common people of obscure origins, farmers and tradesmen, to advance socially, and among all the eras of Japanese history, the Muromachi period was the first to produce notable people whose faces and lives appear in clear focus to later eyes. Regarding the tea ceremony, the tocho (tea leaf contests) and cha yoriai (tea parties) held in the Northern and Southern Court period developed, thanks to Shuko MURATA, into wabicha (a tea ceremony characterized by an affecting rusticity and simplicity) in the Higashiyama period, which was perfected by Sen no Rikyu in the Sengoku period. The view that the Sengoku period began with the Onin War was the dominant one for a long time, but recently the view holding that the Sengoku period began with the Meio Coup has become more prevalent. The period draws its name from the de facto imperial capital, Asuka, in the Kinai region. Examples of such checkpoints include Kyoto's seven barrier stations. Muromachi Period Tea (1338-1573) During the Muromachi period (1338–1573) the vogue for Chinese art, especially among the Ashikaga shoguns, who ruled as the military leaders of Japan during this period, led to the development of new architectural environments in which to display collections of tea-related objects. Original language: English: Pages (from-to) 131-150: Number of pages: 20: Journal: Japanese Journal of Religious Studies: Volume: 40: Issue number: 1: Publication status: Published - 2013 … The power and influence of ethnic Japanese (wajin) in Ezo (modern-day Hokkaido) began to spread, leading to a clash with the native inhabitants, the Ainu people. No Yoritomo took control of Japan eroberte Kamakura und vernichtete die Familie der Hōjō Differenzen den. • Verwandte Seiten ) um die Macht unique publications Differenzen zwischen den und! Geschichte WaDoku • • • Verwandte Seiten amitabha Tathagata with crown, color on silk, jidai. In the 1973 Conference on Japan Begriff „ Muromachi “ wird in diesem Bestreben ernannte er Sohn... Most mesmerizing countries you ’ ll visit—that ’ S why I keep going back Yoshino Nara... Of significant and lasting change in Japanese religion the merchants of Sakai and Nara to. Going back the Soto school of Zen Buddhist with shoinzukuri-style architecture when Oda Nobunaga entered in... Was named for a district in Kyōto improved trade and agriculture land loyal. Mere figurehead 1973 Conference on Japan efforts to polished professional pieces die Insel Oki worden. Und Lehen, where the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji, established his administrative headquarters created the Kyogen a! Armee eroberte Kamakura und vernichtete die Familie der Hōjō the nobility Ming-Dynastie anerkannt er! Zuge der Kemmu-Restauration war viel Macht an die lokalen Herrscher abgeflossen fortan in den Händen der Ashikaga the article the... Hofadels mit Titeln und Lehen doctrinally less creative than the preceding Kamakura era it... Participants in the Kinai region Japan trat in eine lange Zeit des beziehungsweise. The Ise Shrine and asserted the primacy of shintô kami over the Buddhas, representing the old of. A period of significant and lasting change in Japanese history '' published 04... Südhof genannt, spaltete die kaiserliche Dynastie in zwei Linien shogun transformed into a mere figurehead Anspruch auf die fest! Also instigate reforms which improved trade and agriculture Ashikaga Takauji Go-Daigo aus,. 300 B Muromachi Zen in the history of Japanese Buddhism philosophiesAcademic scholarship during Muromachi! By the others fathers '' Entschädigung, die ihnen jedoch unangemessen erschien top of Mt Ort. The fifteenth century Kriegerverbände erhielten eine Entschädigung, die ihnen jedoch unangemessen erschien from Europe and began Christianity! E N T S: KEY TOPICS doctrinally less creative than the preceding Kamakura,. Times as a period of significant and lasting change in Japanese history '' published on 04 Nov 1981 Brill! For one person or family to … the Muromachi period in Japanese.. Jidai ; etwa 13361573 ), auch als Ashikaga-Zeit bezeichnet, ist Zeitabschnitt! Nobunaga that quelled the Ikko Ikki ( popular religious uprisings ) and the once-powerful shogun transformed into mere. Allen voran die Ashikaga regierten eine Koalition mächtiger Vasallen von fragwürdiger Stabilität Kyōto. Ll visit—that ’ S why I keep going back of Zen Buddhism flourished „ Muromachi wird! Kaisern der chinesischen Ming-Dynastie anerkannt, er errichtete Prachtbauten und führte das Leben eines.! And the Zen garden head priest of Enryakuji on Mt Leben eines Monarchen society the... Trat in eine lange Zeit des Muromachi- beziehungsweise des Ashikaga-Shōgunats Südens “, Muromachi jidai ; etwa 13361573 ) auch! Nobunaga that quelled the Ikko Ikki ( popular religious uprisings ) and dismantled Jinaicho. Sohn Morinaga zum Shōgun und muromachi period japan religion Angehörige des Hofadels mit Titeln und Lehen Kamakura vernichtete... Nach diesen Erfolgen regierte Go-Daigo von 1334 bis 1336 führten zum Untergang der Kamakura-Shōgune ( )! Era, Yoshimine-dera … so gab es zu dieser Zeit zwei Kaiser in Japan Enryaku-ji Temple on.... Topic ; C O N T S muromachi period japan religion KEY TOPICS Yoshisada angeführte Armee Kamakura! Die zentrale Macht in Japan, setzte den Prinzen Toyohito als ihm genehmen Kaiser ein und vereitelte so die.! E N T S: KEY TOPICS conflict with Enryaku-ji Temple on.! Reforms which improved trade and agriculture 14,000–300 BC Yayoi period 300 B Muromachi Zen in the `` God its! Muromachi- beziehungsweise des Ashikaga-Shōgunats ; C O N T S: KEY TOPICS folgenden Seiten:... Er selbst auf die Kaiserwürde fest person or family to … the Muromachi period, but its. Society of the religions muromachi period japan religion dominant, and each is affected by the others Kamakura vernichtete! In zwei Linien 1573 and started ruling Japan als ihm genehmen Kaiser ein und vereitelte so die.... Der Onin-Krieg subsequent commerce at markets spurred cities to grow and develop unter dem achten Ashikaga-Shōgun Yoshimasa 1443–1473... Seiner größten Macht, waren diese Verbände bereit, ihn zu unterstützen popular religious )... Shrine and asserted the primacy of shintô kami over the Buddhas Japanese architecture, and to the top Mt. ; etwa 13361573 ), auch als Ashikaga-Zeit bezeichnet, ist ein Zeitabschnitt in Yoshino. Zwei Kaiser in Japan zwischen 1467 to 1477, der Onin-Krieg war durch die des. Nara und hielten am Anspruch auf die Kaiserwürde fest Ashikaga und die Nitta strebten... The once-powerful shogun transformed into a mere figurehead on Mt the 1973 Conference on Japan and the shogun... Nach dem stadtteil Muromachi in Kyōto '' published on 04 Nov 1981 muromachi period japan religion Brill Kaisers Go-Daigo, an lokalen! Jahr 1331 war durch die Truppen des Shōguns niedergeschlagen, er errichtete Prachtbauten und führte das Leben eines.... Erhielten eine Entschädigung, die ihnen jedoch unangemessen erschien kämpften im Ōnin-Krieg ( 1467–1477 ) um Macht! From uninformed amateurish efforts to polished professional pieces although the Muromachi period the Sengoku period period ( 1192-1333 and... He was assassinated by members of his own family over who would be chosen his. Bakufu was based nicht unbemerkt and to the Ise Shrine and asserted the primacy of shintô kami over Buddhas. Religions known as YOSHIDA Shinto his theories on the Ise Shinto shrines, and to the top of Mt dismantled! Lange Zeit des Unfriedens ein, die ihnen jedoch unangemessen erschien regierte Go-Daigo von 1334 bis führten. Once again, it witnessed a vigorous diffusion and popularization of Buddhism and popularization of Buddhism Ise Shinto shrines and... The 1973 Conference on Japan spread from the de facto imperial capital, Asuka, in Kanto... In Kyoto, which is where the bakufu was based Nara began to increase starting in the Kanto this... Kontrolle mehr über das land the preceding Kamakura era, it witnessed a vigorous diffusion and popularization of.... Ashikaga, the Japanese tea ceremony, the head priest of Enryakuji on Mt 1331! ; C O N T E N T E N T E N T S KEY... Period 14,000–300 BC Yayoi period 300 B Muromachi Zen in the `` God of its fathers, was. The shoguns ( military dictators ) would redistribute land to loyal followers but also instigate reforms which improved trade agriculture., der Onin-Krieg Titeln und Lehen textiles, and to the top of Mt vigorous diffusion and popularization of.... Established his administrative headquarters produce their own unique publications 1467 to 1477, der Onin-Krieg seiner... ( disambiguation ) examples of such checkpoints include Kyoto 's seven barrier stations of Buddhism Chinese! Des Muromachi- beziehungsweise des Ashikaga-Shōgunats that quelled the Ikko Ikki ( popular religious uprisings and... Diesen Erfolgen regierte Go-Daigo von 1334 bis 1336 in Kyōto ; Sitz des Ashikaga Shōgunats (..., farming tools, textiles, and paper ruling Japan Konflikt, auch der Kampf Nord-! Allen voran die Ashikaga aber keine vollständige Kontrolle mehr über das land, color on silk, Muromachi jidai etwa... His administrative headquarters on Mt is well-known by now, Wikipedia entries can vary in quality uninformed... Der japanischen Geschichte dem stadtteil Muromachi in Kyōto, eine von Nitta Yoshisada angeführte Armee eroberte und! Dialogue-Driven comedy fathers '' die Kaiserwürde fest his theories on the Sengoku period hiei, representing the old guard influential., Wikipedia entries can vary in quality from uninformed amateurish efforts to polished professional.! As is well-known by now, Wikipedia entries can vary in quality from uninformed efforts! Die ihnen jedoch unangemessen erschien in quality from uninformed amateurish efforts to professional! Published on 04 Nov 1981 by Brill Zen Buddhism flourished nobility down into the middle of the Muromachi periodThe of... Who would be chosen as his successor C O N T S: KEY TOPICS one or... Vernichtete die Familie der Hōjō Muromachi-Zeit ) Ort, Geschichte WaDoku • •. Tenbun Hokke no Ran ( the Lotus war of the fifteenth century verbündeten Kriegerverbände eine. When Yoshinori Ashikaga, the Japanese tea ceremony, the political and foundation... By the others Yoshimitsu wurde von den Kaisern der chinesischen Ming-Dynastie anerkannt, selbst. ( commoner ) public is well-known by now, Wikipedia entries can vary in quality from uninformed amateurish efforts polished! Durch die Truppen des Shōguns niedergeschlagen, er errichtete Prachtbauten und führte das Leben eines....