Check out our list for saying indigo in different languages. However cellulose is readily degraded by strong acids, hot weak acids and strong alkalis, so preferably needs to be dyed under neutral or weakly alkaline conditions. Die Indigofera dient primär der Gewinnung des Indigo, eines wertvollen Farbstoffs, von dem die Farbe Indigo, ein tiefes Blau an der Grenze zum Violett, ihren Namen hat. 27, no.2, pp. Others dry it into cake. Its most important property is that it is easily reduced by agents such as sodium hyposulphite into soluble leuco-indigo. op Midden-Java, en over de daarbij gebruikte grondstoffen. Migration seems to have been especially channelled through arid corridors, while at the same time random genetic drift gave rise to an increasing number of species, each adapted to specific geographical regions. Ring Dyeing and Substantivity It became known as ‘pencil blue’ or ‘brush blue’. In addition, naturally derived indigo contains many particulate impurities ranging from soil, minerals, leaf and stem material and colloidal organics. All our dictionaries are bidirectional, meaning that you can look up words in both languages at the same time. TLC and HPLC Analysis of Red and Violet Cotton Yarns of Indonesian Textiles, Dyes in History and Archaeology, vol. Heating broke down the larger aggregates into small aggregates, creating a bluer colour. Today about 40 species of Indigofera are native to Southeast Asia, but only a small number of these are cultivated, the most important all belonging to the pantropical clade: There are annual, biannual, and perennial varieties of each type, apart from I. hirsuta, which is a purely annual species. Pronunciation : case sensitive: see the pronunciation key for a guide on how to write the sounds; sounds can only be searched in names that have been assigned pronunciations * is a wildcard that will match zero or more letters in the pronunciation example: *lee matches names which end with the sound lee _ is a wildcard that will match exactly one letter in the pronunciation Akan tetapi, Indigo akan segera melupakan kata-kata itu. We have already referred to indigo as being a ‘vat’ dye which requires the total immersion of the yarns into a soluble reduced form of the dye. There a chicken must be sacrificed before each dye pot is prepared, its soul dedicated to the Savunese ancestress who supposedly introduced indigo dyeing to the region. Repeating the one-minute dip and air-dry process around 30 times will bring out an intense shade of indigo called kachiiro. In many parts of Indonesia, such as Sulawesi, East Java, Ende, Sikka, Lembata and East Sumba, indigo dyed threads are partly or completely overdyed with morinda to create a dark purple-brown colour. In Kodi, pregnant women must not look at the pots because the churning dye will dissolve the contents of her womb and cause an abortion, while menstrating women are thought to make the indigo dye run irregularly (Hoskins 1989, 150). In solution, natural indigo fades more rapidly than synthetic indigo. On a daily basis, thousands of travellers book cheap airline tickets with HappyEasyGo and score the lowest airfares in India. The idea is based on concepts developed in the 1970s by Nancy Ann Tappe and further developed by Lee Carrolland Jan Tober. Phytochemical and HPTLC studies of methanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (Fabaceae), Int. Cunningham, Anthony B, et al, 2014. The yarns are immersed in the dye bath for a day or two and are then hung up to dry in the sun for up to two weeks. To achieve the deepest blue, some threads were dyed for a full year. Some of the highest levels of fading were measured on two indigo-dyed cotton textiles from Sumatra and a third from the Coromandel coast of India. Indigo is a Girl name, meaning Dark Blue in Greek origin. They carry it within and can sense when others are dishonest. IndiGo is India’s fastest growing airline since it commenced operations in 2006, and has firm plans to add more destinations to its network in India and abroad. In Eastern Indonesia some species seem to have been deliberately imported from island to island in relatively recent times. One such region is that of Cape Sasar in northern East Sumba, which includes the village of Wunga, believed to be the original first village . Cotton is one of the hardest fibres to dye, but animal fibres such as wool and silk, as well as certain synthetic fibres such as nylon and acetates, take up the dye more effectively. In a few places in Eastern Indonesia it has been traditionally forbidden to produce indigo. Hamariweb.com tempat terbaik untuk mencari maksud nama yang tepat anda. Here's a list of translations. Thus bromoindigo is a red gas, but is purple in solution and blue as a solid. Translation for 'indigo' in the free English-Chinese dictionary and many other Chinese translations. It found that a cluster of 1-3 molecules of 6-bromoindigo was red, a cluster of 4 molecules was purple and a cluster of more than 6 molecules was dark blue (Ajiki, 2014). In general pigment derivatives of pelargonidin and cyanidin produce red and purple colours, while those of delphinidin produce blue. This bathochromic shift of colour in the liquid and solid phase is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Bibliography. Indigos" – who doctors say are suffering from ADD or ADHD are infact a new generation of gifted blessed with … However the process was not economic and could not compete with the natural product. It was used extensively throughout Indonesia, including the Lesser Sunda Islands, for dyeing cotton - in the majority of regions accompanied by morinda. High pH not only ionises the indigo, replacing the monophenolic form of ionic leuco-indigo with the less substantive diphenolic ionic form, but also the cellulose. For similar reasons the dye pot is sometimes covered with leaves or other items during the fermentation process. Indigo Design & Developing. Before the dye pots were set in place a sorcerer would use special phrases to chase away evil spirits. For indigotin, the wavelength of maximum absorbance, λmax, depends on its physical state. Some 600 different naturally occurring anthocyanins have been identified, many of interest to the food colorant industry. - NEW DELHI/SYDNEY: India’s IndiGo has emerged as one of the world’s biggest airlines by capacity, aided by a swift recovery in the domestic aviation market The dyed fibrils act as a barrier, preventing the indigo penetrating further into the undyed part of the fibre. As the uneven surfaces of these micro-aggregates become extremely small, optical interference can create an iridescent effect. Indigo is by far the most commonly used blue vegetable dye and can be derived from plants found in temperate, sub-tropical and tropical climate zones. 20, pp. The following spectrum covers the range 4,000 to 400 waves per cm, equivalent to wavelengths from 2,500nm to 25,000nm. It is Indigofera tinctoria, a species from the East Indies, that yields the dye Indigo, and has a long history in trade. Woad, Isatis tinctoria, contains two precursors of indigo, 80% in the form of isatan B and 20% in the form of indican (Epstien et al 1967). Anthocyanins are important members of the flavonoid group of chemicals, which also include yellow flavanol pigments such as kaempferol. Severe penalties were imposed on dyers who ignored the prohibition (De Beauvais Raseu 1794, 91). Indigo dyeing was and still is strictly restricted to women and the most experienced dyers tend to be post-menopausal women. At the same time, most Indigofera species disperse their seeds through the spontaneous explosive rupture of the seedpod, a process called dehiscence. In Lamalera indigo grows wild around the village, but in insufficient quantities for dyeing. Sign Up. Sandberg, Gosta,1989. In a short span, HappyEasyGo has become a frontrunner in the online flight booking space. Most organic compounds absorb light in the UV, not the visible part of the spectrum. Subagiyo, Puji Yosep, 2007. In Sikka Regency some dyers add the leaves of the lea ramu plant to indigo to make it black. Böhmer, Harold, 2002. indigo translate: indygo. Various local names are used to describe indigo across Indonesia, many related to the Austronesian word tarum: Indigo grows wild throughout the Lesser Sunda Islands but in some weaving communities indigo seed is usually planted in fields around the villages, often after the maize or paddy rice harvest. While anthocyanins are used extensively as food pigments, they make rather poor dyes - being unstable and neither light-fast nor wash-fast. life on earth. 5, pp. Pin It. Heating converted the smaller aggregates into larger ones, creating a redder colour (Mironova 2013, Lavinda et al 2013). The Meaning of an Indigo Color. Because its properties were technically inferior to high performance blue vat dyes such as indanthrone, its use declined during the first half of the twentieth century, only coming back into fashion during the 1960s. The Absorption and Reflectance Properties of Indigotin The Natural Indigo Dyeing Process Dyers living below the Ilé Api volcano on the north coast of Lembata Island, repeatedly dye their yarns up to thirty times in order to obtain a deep blue that borders on black. The early Portuguese and Dutch colonists never regarded indigo as an important resource of the East Indies. At a given pH, dye take-up increases with the increasing concentration of indigo in the dye bath. Jika sedang bersedih atau merasa tersakiti, Indigo sulit menerima kata-kata dari orang lain. Intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonding are the reasons why indigotin is so stable to temperature and has such a relatively high boiling point, reported as 390 to 392°C. Comparison of Natural and Synthetic Indigo The finer details of the indigo dyeing process have always been a strictly held secret, passed on from mother to daughter. In the solid state  X-ray structure analysis shows that each indigo molecule is attached to four others, whereas in crystalline indigo the indigo pentamers are also π-stacked. There is also a shift in colour-cast from a greenish dark blue to a redder less blue as the number of dips increases. Indigo. Varieties of Indigofera More details of IndiGo’s destinations, fleet etc. Fermentation relies on the presence of reducing alkaliphilic bacteria that have grown from the cocktail of vegetable matter and nutrients, assisted by the presence of glucose. ‘Ngada Regency’, in Gift of the Cotton Maiden: textiles of Flores and the Solor Islands, Hamilton, Roy W., (ed. Indigos are said to question things incessantly, seeking to understand the meaning behind why things are the way they are. ‘Indigo was also a significant earner of Chinese silver, but its replacement by synthetic Prussian blue brought the indigo business to a disastrous end.’ ‘Its blue colorant is chemically identical to indigo made from plants of the genus Indigofera, cultivated in Asia.’ BASF and Höechst joined forces to find a better route, starting from readily available aniline, and by 1902 both companies opened plants for the multi-tonne production of the dye. The use of indigo was likewise forbidden in France from 1596 to 1669, but was later repealed under Louis XIII (Rhind 1841, 500). Indigo Plants Indigo Plants Pin It. To explain this dichotomy it has been proposed that while monomers may attach to the fibres at low dye concentrations, dimers and trimers are formed at higher concentrations (Clark and Cooksey 1999). However in practice it is very difficult to produce a deep blue dye. 52 and 61. Synthetic indigo - indigotin - was developed in Germany and launched commercially in 1897. The pre-eminence of indigo and morinda is not a coincidence but a consequence of the chemical inertness of cellulose, the principle component of cotton fibre. In nonpolar solvents it is likely that intra-molecular hydrogen bonds are favoured, encouraging the formation of molecular aggregates. Mironova 2013 found that indigo shades still varied considerably between fabrics woven from fibres that had a very similar structure, such as. Men are not only prohibited from participating in the indigo dyeing process, but are forbidden to see or approach the indigo dye pots. and Cooksey C.J., 1999. This completely depends upon the chemical composition and physical state of the material concerned. Peasants were required to cultivate one fifth of village land with cash crops such as indigo or sugar on behalf of the government (Wahid, 1975, 35). Some of these are additional dye colorants, the two most important being indirubin or indigo red (from 2 to 10%) and kaemferol or indigo yellow. Conversely dibromoindigo dye has mainly larger aggregates alongside a few smaller ones to give a purple tone. Hydrogen bonding occurs when a hydrogen atom is located between two electronegative atoms, normally oxygen and nitrogen. The implication is that the colour of indigo dyes depends just as much upon how they form molecular aggregates as it does upon their basic molecular structure. Homosexuals were also involved in dyeing in Nggela (De Yong 1994, 214). deciduous subshrub of southeastern Asia having pinnate leaves and clusters of red or … Meaning of indigo. Sources of Indigo Generally cotton is first dyed with indigo and secondly with morinda but there are exceptions. Girl. Dow started production in the USA in 1911. A Colourful History: The Evolution of Indigoids, in Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products 99, Springer. ... meaning places like London, where it has slots, are out. As a biological process, the fermentation of indigo leaves can easily go wrong. your password The cis form has been isolated but rapidly reverts to the more stable trans-form during storage. A recent comparison between Japanese ‘Awa’ natural indigo and synthetic indigo found that the former was somewhat brighter and bluer (Kawahito and Yaskawa 2009). Why not have a go at them together. The solution is to increase the number of dips. The absorption at 3300cm-1 corresponds to the excitation of the NH bonds, while the strong characteristic absorption at 1626cm-1 corresponds with the CO bonds. It can easily be produced unintentionally – for example as a result of indigo animal forage accidentally falling into a puddle of urine. Although indigo has a low substantivity for cotton, that substantivity is highly dependant on the pH of the dye bath – significantly increasing as the pH is reduced from highly alkaline 13.5 to moderately alkaline 10.5 (Etters 1996). 105-133. The Lamaholot (and only the Lamaholot) refer to this over-dyeing process as belapit, which is essential for all bridewealth textiles (Ruth Barnes 1994, 20). However Indigofera was not only found in India – it was distributed globally throughout the entire tropical zone long before the arrival of man, with different species having evolved and spread into different geographical environments. Indigo ist der Namensgeber für die Gruppe der Indigoiden Farbstoffe, deren chemische Struktur eng mit der des Indigo verwandt ist. Pin It.   PROSEA: Plant Resources of South-East Asia 11: Auxiliary Plants, pp. In the Kerek sub-district of East Java, where many of the old traditions of batik production still persist, elderly dyers still remembered once using morinda root. 1669-1680. Given the tropical heat of lowland Indonesia, artificial heating is not normally required. The colour of anthocyanins is determined by a specific part of their molecular structure, known as a chromophore, which absorbs specific bands of visible light. Synthetic indigo also lacks the botanical impurities that initiate micro-crystal clustering, a phenomena that creates a deeper blue along with a degree of iridescence. en Not infrequently ideas and solutions which are very appealing but which obscure in varying degrees the truth and the dignity of the human person, are offered to the men and women of today, in their sincere and deep search for a response to the important daily problems that affect their married and family life. Indigotin is insoluble in water, dilute alkalis and dilute acids. With a combination of endemic and introduced varieties, the Regent of Blora, north central Java, could list six types of locally growing indigo in the early twentieth century: Bengala, Katémas, Pèrsi, Galoerade, gènjah oerang, and walik (Jasper and Pirngadie 1912, 65). This is a laborious process, undertaken during the rainy season, each immersion taking two full days after which the yarns must be thoroughly dried before the next immersion. Its disadvantage is that it is insoluble in water. go Would you like to know how to translate indigo to Indonesian? Learn more in the Cambridge English-Polish Dictionary. Yet one only has to visit the region to observe that several varieties occur on each island, some apparently endemic and others introduced. In some parts of Flores and on Sumba certain dyers recover the precipitated indigo and store it as a paste in sealed jars to prevent oxidation. It has been estimated that in 1900 dyers obtained 7kg of pure indigo from 3,700kg of fresh Indigofera tinctoria leaf, a yield of 0.2% (John 2009: 118). In parts of Timor they increase the alkalinity by adding the leaves of Jatropha curcas (Cunningham et al, 2014, 95). PROTA: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 3: Dyes and Tannins, pp. Blue requires the use of a copper or iron mordant (Bancroft 1814, 343). Once the mixture has cooled, a small amount is scooped into a plastic mug and the indigo-dyed yarns are laid on an old rice sack. The chromophore has two electron donor groups (NH) and two electron acceptor groups (C=O carbonyl), cross-conjugated through a central ethene bridge. Nevertheless production continued to grow, reaching a peak in 1898 before collapsing by over 80% over the next decade. In West Sumba, wood shavings and unidentified tree barks were added, while on Roti one dyer added the barks of mangrove, Peltophorum pterocarpum and Schleichera oleosa (Bühler, 1939, 87). Prohibitions Against Indigo Dyeing About. Infrared radiation is far less energetic than visible light - too low to excite the electrons in a molecule, but sufficient to excite the vibrational state of a chemical bond. Applied Science and Research, vol. The distinctions are numerous: the Toba Batak alone differentiate some hundred different types of ulos, ritual shawls.The colours speak a symbolic language: black and dark indigo stand for the underworld, red (used only sparingly) for the middle world, and white the upper world, i.e. This suggests that other unidentified factors may be involved in the photo-oxidation of indigo. Indirubin is also known as red indigo, but it is actually red-violet. [4] Da das menschliche Auge in diesem Spektralbereich vergleichsweise une… 1.1.2. Unfortunately it is hard to find evidence to support this claim – many synthetic dyes have reflectance spectra that cover a wide range of wavelengths, just like natural dyes. The dyers boil ground tamarind seed, powdered mangrove bark and the outer shells of the Java Olive or Wild Almond tree (Sterculia foetida), known locally as kapok or wuka and elsewhere in the Lesser Sunda islands as nitas. A variety of books, conferences and relat… They then immerse the cotton skeins for three days before removing them and shaking them in the air. The temperature can be too high or too low, insufficient sugar can halt bacterial growth, the pH can be spoilt by acid released by the bacteria, while over-fermentation can ruin the whole batch. Examples are found in the blue petals of flowers such as cornflower, hibiscus and morning glory, the skins of grapes, elderberries, blueberries and bilberries and the leaves of red cabbage. 'Textile Technology', in Gift of the Cotton Maiden: textiles of Flores and the Solor Islands, Hamilton, Roy W., (ed. When used as a pigment in paint, the colour-fastness of indigo varies considerably and when applied using an oil or egg yolk medium it can fade rapidly due to chemical breakdown of the indigotin (van Eikema Hommes 2002). The Influence of Fibre Type on Colour In polar solvents there is probably additional hydrogen bonding with the solvent molecules. The leuco-indigo is quickly oxidized back into insoluble indican, changing to greenish-blue and finally blue. John, Philip, 2009. Iets over de inlandsche wijze van katoen-verven (rood-verven, bruinverven, blauwverven, enz.) Visible light covers a narrow spectrum of electromagnetic wavelengths from 380 to 720 nanometres (nm), ranging from violet (380-400nm) to red (635-720nm). Der Farbstoff Indigo dagegen unterscheidet sich von den anderen Tönen. indigo (English)Origin & history 16th century (as indico, modern spelling from the 17th century), Spanish índigo‎, Portuguese endego‎ (modern índigo‎), or Dutch (via Portuguese) indigo‎, all from Latin indicum‎ ("indigo"), from Ancient Greek Ἰνδικὸν‎ ("Indian dye"), from Ἰνδία‎. The most crucial factor is to maintain the pH in the range 10.0 to 11.5 (neutral is 7.0). The dyers emphasise that the yarns must not be immersed into the tannin mixture because this will make them stick together. The Indigofera comprises over 750 species of tropical and sub-tropical herbs and shrubs, the most common generically referred to as indigo. In solution indoxyl exists in equilibrium as two forms – as indoxyl along with its tautomer indolin-3-one: Some but not all of the indoxyl combines with itself to produce the dianion salt, leuco-indigo or indigo-white, which is soluble and actually coloured light yellow. As well as being extremely dangerous it also had other disadvantages – William Morris tried out the technique but was disappointed with the unevenness of the final colour produced. By far the most important member of the indigoid family is indigotin, traditionally obtained by the enzymatic reduction of plants of the indigo family. Sun, X., and Zheng, X., 1998. On Savu, Geneviève Duggan has recorded three varieties: It is interesting that in the domain of Kodi in West Sumba, oral tradition claims that the art of indigo dyeing was imported from Savu, and people of Savunese descent still specialise in indigo dyeing in that region (Hoskins 1993, 52). Photo Oxidation After the application of four mugs of tannin solution, the yarns are thoroughly soaked through and are hung up to dry without rinsing. In East Sumba ikat designers tend to send their bound yarns to specialist indigo dyers, who require several months to complete the initial dyeing process. Faridah Hanum, I.; and Van der Maesen, L. J. G., (eds), 1997. Extracted in microscopic quantities from the glands of predatory sea snails such as Murex trunculus and Murex brandaries, it was the most precious dyestuff in antiquity. After five immersions the yarns are returned to the workshop, where those small parts of the design that will eventually be light blue are unbound. India’s IndiGo has emerged as one of the world’s biggest airlines by capacity, aided by a swift recovery in the domestic aviation market to nearly 80% of pre-pandemic levels and the financial strength to boost market share as rivals struggle. Indeed I. guatimalensis, introduced by the Dutch in the nineteenth century, is still harvested in the Kerek sub-district of Tuban today, where it is known as tom gresi or presi (Heringa 1989, 113). How to say indigo in Bahasa Indonesia? 45-48, Leiden. On Savu, one dyer added palm sugar, turmeric and betel nut. Indigo ist der Farbton von Licht, dessen Emissionsmaximum zwischen 425 nm und 450 nm[1] liegt. It was found that smaller aggregates reflect blue light, and larger aggregates reflect red. One advantage of indigo is that as it fades there is only a moderate change in hue. For example, some villages produce a weak alkali lye by filtering their water through an open-weave basket containing the ash from burnt wood or twigs, while others just add lime powder obtained from calcined (burnt) white coral, seashells or sometimes on the non-volcanic islands, burnt limestone. Once a section has been treated, the yarns are turned and more mix is pumelled into them.  2-(3-oxobenzo[b]selenophene-2(3H)-ylidene). Indigo Cultivation The second historically important indigoid is Tyrian or Royal purple, 6,6’-dibromoindigo, traces of which have been recovered from an eighteenth century BC site on Crete and a thirteenth century BC Phoenician site in the Lebanon (Gaboriaud-Kolar et al 2014, 90). It reacts with sulphuric acid to form indigo sulphate. It is likely that the process for producing indigo dye from wild Indigofera was discovered independently in many parts of the tropics a long time ago. The villages above Lamalera on Ile Labalekan morinda but there are indications that indoxyl is adsorbed onto the state. In indigo dyeing can produce a deep blue colour Duff, Sinclair and Stirling )! Root was added to the indigo penetrating further into the tannin bath is a poor absorber of near-infra-red,! Identified, many of interest to the outer layers of a dye for its substrate, the. Indigo dudes are considered to be post-menopausal women with morinda but there are exceptions wool was after! Indigo is one of the East Indies that can be used to advantage tannins, pp list for saying in... Bruinverven, blauwverven, enz. quantities for dyeing is therefore subcontracted to the genus Indigofera, manufactured! 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