Advanced training is done at Natal AB in the AT-29 Super Tucano, which replaced the Embraer AT-26 Xavante in the conversion training course. As in most South American nations, the Brazilian Army (Portuguese: Exército Brasileiro, [ɛˈzɛʁsitu bɾaziˈlejɾu]) has been the most influential of the services because of its size, deployment, and historical development. There are a total of [ 134 ] aircraft as part of the Brazil Aircraft List (Current and Former Types) in the Military Factory. On 10 July 1999, the Ministry of Defence was created, with the abolition of the EMFA and the merger of all three ministries of the Armed Forces (Army, Navy and Air Force) into a singular ministry of the Cabinet. Detailing the current military strength of Brazil including air force, army, navy, financials and manpower. Welcome to the United States Air Force. Although it is involved in "brown-water" (riverine and coastal) operations, the navy's primary goal has been to become an effective "blue-water" navy, able to project power on the high seas. Recent studies suggest that deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon could increase sharply in the future as a result of over US$40 billion in planned investments in highway paving and major new infrastructure projects in the region. The SIVAM is a huge network of radars, sensors and personnel integrated to guard and protect the Amazon Rainforest and its resources. [16][17] However, Brazil is the only country besides China and Russia that has land borders with 10 or more nations. It was conceived at the initiative of the Army Command, as a result of the approval of the National Defense Strategy in 2008, which guides the organization of the Armed Forces. Brazil has the need to patrol its 16,880 kilometers (10,490 mi) of land borders. Deliveries started in 2006 with the first aircraft arriving in October 2006. From 1946 through 1985, the army was divided into four numbered armies: the First Army was centered in Rio de Janeiro, the Second Army in São Paulo, the Third Army in Porto Alegre, and the Fourth Army in Recife. Brazil was one of the Allies of World War II.It was also the only Ally from South America to provide troops.The country made significant contributions to the war effort. She was promoted to brigadier general on November 25, 2020. Among tropical nations, Brazil probably has the world's best monitoring of deforestation activity. Active Brazilian Air Force Aircraft (2021) Current aircraft of the Brazilian Air Force including attack, bomber, cargo transport, special mission, fighter, Search and Rescue, aerial tanker, remote-piloted, reconnaissance, trainer and utility types. Given its "blue-water" bias, the navy is even less inclined to become involved in counterdrug operations than the army or air force. The "General Command o… [21] To achieve this mission, significant manpower and funding is required. To give continuity to the creation studies, President Fernando Henrique created the Inter-ministerial Work group that defined the lines of direction for implantation of the Ministry of Defense. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. Figures are sourced from Flight International (Flightglobal.com). Ex-President of the Republic Castelo Branco, defended the thesis of the creation of a Ministry of Defense. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. The Commander of the Brazilian Air Force (Brazilian Portuguese language: Comandante da Aeronáutica) is the head of the Brazilian Air Force and the leader of its Aeronautics Command (Comando da Aeronáutica or COMAer). The EMFA, which is involved in planning and coordination, interprets interservice views about policy and came the closest to functioning as a ministry of defense. They sent an expeditionary force to fight alongside the allies in the Italian Campaign.The Brazilian Navy and Air Force helped the Allies in the Atlantic from 1942 until the end of the war in 1945. The aircraft, registration FAB 4878, 4880 and 4884 were purchased by Aerosuporte company for around $ 29,000.. The Brazilian Navy which is the oldest of the Brazilian Armed Forces, includes the Brazilian Marine Corps and the Brazilian Naval Aviation. List of modern weapons of the Brazilian Air Force is a list of in service and active weapon systems of the Brazilian Air Force. Offensive: 2546, Defensive: 4.[32]. ", The highest level consultative body available to the president is the Council of the Republic (Conselho da República). The President of the Republic still intended to create a Ministry in his first term. In the early 1990s, the army began to undergo a generational change. The F-5s are under a modernisation program called F-5BR program, the aircraft official designation is F-5M. History of the Brazilian Air Force This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 21:32 (UTC). The Brazilian Expeditionary Force (Portuguese: Força Expedicionária Brasileira, FEB) consisted of about 25,900 men arranged by the army and air force to fight alongside the Allied forces in the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II.This air–land force consisted of (replacements included) a complete infantry division, a liaison flight, and a fighter squadron. The Brazilian Air Force had not always been a separate and coequal member of the country's defense establishment. The "Herks" are receiving major upgrades, receiving a full glass cockpit besides many other modifications. The navy (Portuguese: Marinha do Brasil, [hi du bɾɐˈziw]) traces its heritage to Admiral Cochrane's mercenary fleet and to the tiny Portuguese ships and crews that protected the earliest coastal colonies from seaborne marauders. This is a list of active ships of the Brazilian Navy, complete and correct as of 2018.The Navy has approximately 112 ships in commission, including 39 auxiliary vessels. The United States, particularly through its counterinsurgency doctrines of the early 1960s, was more influential with the older group of officers. NCOs have virtually no autonomy or authority. [26], The military personnel were allowed to run and serve in political offices while staying on active duty. An increasing percentage of the ranks are "long-service" volunteer professionals; women were allowed to serve in the armed forces beginning in the early 1980s when the Brazilian Army became the first army in South America to accept women into career ranks; women serve in Navy and Air Force only in Women's Reserve Corps.[12]. [23] He was aided by the Ministers of War and Navy in regard to matters concerning the Army and the Armada, respectively. The FAB is subdivided into four operational commands: Traditionally, the Ministers of War and Navy were civilians but there were some exceptions. Active Brazilian Air Force Aircraft (2021), For an in-depth overview of current leading air powers of the world, including active inventories and strengths, consult the, World Directory of Modern Military Aircraft (www.WDMMA.org), Narrow-Body Short-to-medium Route Passenger Airliner, Airbus Helicopters AS532 (Super Puma / Cougar), Airbus Helicopters H725/EC725 (Caracal/Super Cougar), Tactical Military Transport / Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA), Multi-Role / Utility / Attack / Transport Helicopter, Light Single-Engine, Turboprop-Powered Utility Aircraft, Medium Altitude, Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), Medium-Lift Twin-Engine Tactical Military Transport Aircraft, Trainer / Counter-Insurgency / Light Attack / Armed Reconnaissance Aircraft, Airborne Early Warning and Control (AWAC) Aircraft, Tactical Transport / Multi-role / Multi-Mission Aircraft, Lockheed Martin KC-130 Hercules / Super Hercules, Land-Based Long-Range Maritime Patrol / Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft, Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighter / Tiger / Tiger II, Single-Seat Lightweight Multirole Aircraft, Lightweight 4th Generation Multi-role Fighter Aircraft, For an in-depth overview of current leading airpowers of the world, including active inventories and strengths, consult the. Brazilian soldiers were in Haiti from 2004 until 2017, leading the United Nations Stabilization Mission (MINUSTAH). Under the coordination of the Joint Armed Forces also operates the Committee of Chiefs of Staffs of the military services. [44] The Space Operations Center (COPE) was inaugurated in 2020, subordinated to the Aerospace Operations Command, with the objective of operating the satellites. The C-105 replaces the FAB's C-115 Buffalo fleet and will supplement the C-130 Hercules. Learn about great opportunities for enlisted airmen, officers and health care professionals. The RA-1s are equipped with RAFAEL's RecceLite reconnaissance system. The CDN has authority to "express an opinion in instances of declaration of war and the celebration of peace" and to "express an opinion on the decreeing of a state of emergency, state of siege, or federal intervention." Because of the need for literate and skilled young men to handle modern weapons, the army has served as a training ground for a large reserve force. Brazil’s air force transports emergency oxygen supplies to Manaus. Thus, the new charter changed the manner in which the military could exercise its moderating power. Brazilian Air Force; List of active Brazilian military aircraft; References. Command of the CML is still a coveted assignment, and the Military Village (Vila Militar), Rio de Janeiro's garrison or military community, is still considered one of the most important centers of military influence in the entire country. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces" in 1941. The navy is the most aristocratic and conservative of the services and draws a larger share of its officers from the upper middle class and upper class. A crew of the Minas Gerais with full air complement consisted of 1,300 officers and enlisted personnel. The following represents an overview of the modern aerial fighting capabilities of the Brazilian Air Force (2021). The COMAer was created in 1999 and replaced the Ministry of Aeronautics. Moreover, Brazil has 16,880 kilometers (10,490 mi) of land borders[18] and 7,367 km (4,578 mi)[19] of coastline to be patrolled and defended. The WDMMA review takes into account specific categories of aircraft covering attack, logistics, special-mission, and … In what is perhaps an anachronism, the CML in Rio de Janeiro continues to have some of the best troop units and the most modern equipment. In 1999 after a creation of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), the Aeronautic Ministry changed its designation to Aeronautic Command, but no big changes happened to the air force structure, it kept almost the same organization it had before. The INPE participation in this complex project accelerates the capability of the country in important space technologies, besides contributing to increase and modernize the national industry in the space sector and the infrastructure (laboratories and centers) dedicated to space projects. [24][25] The model chosen was the British parliamentary or Anglo-American system, in which "the country's Armed Forces observed unrestricted obedience to the civilian government while maintaining distance from political decisions and decisions referring to borders' security". Before that time, a clique of generals residing in Rio de Janeiro controlled major decisions of the army. The Mirage 2000s are meant to be in service until at least 2015, when the Brazilian Air Force foresee the (postponed) F-X entering in service. According to many critics, such an unusual division of labor caused serious command and control problems. [39] Also relocated from the state of Rio de Janeiro were the 1st and 3rd Combat Cars Regiment, now stationed in the city of Santa Maria, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. [38], However, despite those efforts, the presence of the Armed Forces on the border regions of the Brazilian Amazon continues to be sparse and disperse, given the fact that the Army has just 28 border detachments in that area, a total of 1,600 soldiers, or 1 man for every 7 km (4.3 mi) of borders. [5][6][7] The armed forces are expanding their presence in the Amazon under the Northern Corridor (Calha Norte) program. Doctor Carla Lyrio Martins is the first woman to rise to the rank of general officer in the Brazilian Air Force (FAB, in Portuguese). A ceremony at Embraer’s Gavião Peixoto plant on November 27 marked the delivery of the first of five EMB 145 aircraft to be modernized. The generals of the early 1990s had been junior officers in the early 1960s and had witnessed the military coup in 1964. It is composed of the ministers of the three services, their chiefs of staff, and the EMFA chief. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, [ˌfoʁsaˑˈɛɾjɐ bɾaziˈlejɾɐ], also known as FAB, [ˈfabi] or [ˌɛfiaˈbe]) is the second-largest air force in the Americas (behind only the United States) and has around 70,000 active personnel. However, the quarrel over the creation of a single Ministry of Defense, integrating the Navy, the Army and the Air Force is old. Anti-ship missiles United States AGM-84 Harpoon: used in P-3AM The CMP and CMO are led by major generals (three-star); the other five are headed by full generals (four-star). The first three C-295s, designated C-105A Amazonas in Brazilian service, were commissioned into service in a formal ceremony at Base Aérea de Manaus on March 31, 2007. Throughout the authoritarian period, tensions often existed between the High Command and the five generals who served as president. mi. During the Regency, two were chosen to the Senate and none to the State Council as there was no Council at the time. The complement of aircraft carried by Minas Gerais included at one point six Grumman S-2E antisubmarine planes, in addition to several SH-3D Sea King helicopters and Aérospatiale Super Puma and HB-350 Esquilo helicopters. Naval operations are directed from the Ministry of Navy in Brasília through the Navy General Staff (Estado-Maior da Armada-EMA), six naval districts (five oceanic and one riverine), and two naval commands-Brasília Naval Command (Comando Naval de Brasília-CNB) and Manaus Naval Command (Comando Naval de Manaus-CNM). Advising the Minister of Defense in the upper direction of the armed forces, aiming the organization, preparation and employment, in order to fulfill its constitutional mission and its subsidiaries assignments, with the goals strategic planning and the joint use of the military services. Both air branches transferred their equipment, installations and personnel to the new force. It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti and East Timor. [8], The Brazilian military, especially the army, has become more involved in civic-action programs, education, health care, and constructing roads, bridges, and railroads across the nation. The EME has expanded from four sections in 1968 to 15 sections in 1994. The Brazilian Air Force (FAB) auctioned off three Northrop F-5E Tiger II fighter airframe this week. In 1997 the army totaled 200,000 members. This article presents the insignia and ranks of the Brazilian military.These ranks originate from those adopted upon Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822. MENU. Estimates are produced by Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (INPE) for the entire Brazilian Legal Amazon by visually interpreting satellite imagery from the Landsat Thematic Mapper. A truck is loaded with oxygen to fill the local hospitals, after it arrived on a Brazilian Air Force airplane in Manaus airport, amid the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in Brazil … Until the 1980s, the flagship of the ocean-going navy was the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais (the ex-British HMS Vengeance), which has been in service since 1945. The ACJ is now the main presidential transport and it is assisted by two Boeing 737-200 and one AS-332 Super Puma, with the KC-137 still serving as presidential transport in case of necessity. Brazilian Air Force (FAB) has recently been selected Rohde & Schwarz to equip its modernized Embraer E-99M aerial early warning and surveillance The CDN also may "study, propose, and monitor the progress of initiatives necessary to guarantee national independence and the defense of the democratic state. 1429 its operating guidelines. )[20] of territorial waters – or Blue Amazon, as the Brazilian Navy calls them. With the Mirage III withdrawn, the air defence of Brasília and region is done temporarily by a mix of F-5s from 1st GAv and 1st/14th GAv until 10 Mirage 2000Cs and two Mirage 2000B bought from French Air Force surplus stocks arrive at Anápolis. Purchased from Britain in 1956, the Minas Gerais was reconstructed in the Netherlands in 1960 and refitted extensively in Brazil in the late 1970s, and again in 1993. Historically, the First Army was the most politically significant because of Rio de Janeiro's position as the nation's capital through the 1950s. The backbone of the Brazilian combat aviation made up of three types, the Northrop F-5E/F, the Embraer/Aermacchi A-1A/B (AMX) and the Embraer A/T-29 Super Tucano. The program also takes part in the Space Activities National Program (PNAE) which objective is to lead the country toward the autonomy of this technology, vital in a path to sustainable development. 18–45 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation – 10 to 12 months; 17–45 years of age for voluntary service. [38] In May 2008, the Navy announced new plans to reposition its forces throughout Brazil.[38]. The Department of the Air Force will implement several voluntary officer and enlisted force management programs for fiscal year 2021, including an expanded PALACE CHASE program and limited Active Duty Service Commitment waivers. Reelected, he nominated senator Élcio Álvares, Extraordinary minister of the Defense, on 1 January 1999. The changes were instituted as part of a modernisation campaign to make the army better prepared for rapid mobilisation. Brazil Air Force Brazil Air Force Title: For ç a Aérea Brasileira (Brazilian Air Force) Brief History: The first flying school was established in 1914 by the Brazilian Army but was closed some months later. The army is divided further into 11 military regions. Their hierarchical level is the same of the military commanders of the Navy, Army and Air Force. This body does not include any military minister or officer, although the president may call on a military minister to participate if the matter is related to the respective ministry's agenda. The A-1s are the main attack/ bomber aircraft of the FAB. It is headed by the EME chief, except in the event of a war. The army's geographic organization and distribution have continued to reflect a concern with internal rather than external defense. In 1994 Brazilian troops joined United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces in five countries. In 1944 the Brazilian Air Force joined Allied forces in Italy and operated there for about seven months, this was the FAB baptism in a real conflict. The Aeronautic Ministry was created on January 20, 1941, and absorbed the former Army and Navy aviation under its command. Since the January 1986 restructuring, the High Command has been composed of the seven regional commanders, the chief of staff, and the minister of army. After years of intense rivalry between the navy and the air force for the control of naval aviation, President Castelo Branco decreed in 1965 that only the air force would be allowed to operate fixed-wing aircraft and that the navy would be responsible for helicopters. [28] Below a list of some of the historical events in which the Brazilian Armed Forces took part: Brazilian Expeditionary Force, initially composed of an infantry division, eventually covered all Brazilian military forces who participated in the conflict, including the Brazilian Air Force who did a remarkable job in the last nine months of war with 445 missions executed. The FAB is subdivided into four operational commands: I FAE (I Força Aérea) Advanced fixed and rotary wings instruction; II FAE (II Força Aérea) Of these 23, only three, amongst them Brazil, had dimensions politics to justify its creation, as for example, territorial extension and trained and structuralized Armed Forces. In 1964, for example, close to two-thirds of the Brazilian troops were in the Third Army, and somewhat fewer than one-third were in the First Army. Nowadays they are defined by Act no. In addition, the navy contracted in late 1994 to acquire four Type 22 British Royal Navy frigates and three River-class minesweepers for delivery in the 1995–97 period. It is up to JSAF plan together and integrated employment of staff of the Navy, Army and Air Force, optimizing the use of the military and logistical support in the defense of the country and in peacekeeping, humanitarian and rescue operations; border security; and civil defense actions. The three services are separate from each other, except in three areas: the Armed Forces General Staff (Estado-Maior das Forças Armadas-EMFA), the National Defense Council (Conselho de Defesa Nacional-CDN), and the Armed Forces High Command (Alto Comando das Forças Armadas-ACFA). South America is a relatively peaceful continent in which wars are a rare event;[13] as a result, Brazil hasn't had its territory invaded since year 1865 during the Paraguayan War. This tension was such that President Geisel dismissed Minister of Army Sylvio Frota in 1977. As of late 2002, the Navy had reportedly become responsible for flying all aircraft with the rivalry having subsided between the two branches of the armed forces.[35]. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, [ˌfoʁsaˑˈɛɾjɐ bɾaziˈlejɾɐ], also known as FAB, or [ˌɛfiaˈbe]) is the second-largest air force in the Americas (behind only the United States) and has around 70,000 active personnel. List of modern weapons of the Brazilian Air Force is a list of in service and active weapon systems of the Brazilian Air Force. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces" in 1941. The basic pilot training is concentrated in Pirassununga (AFA – Academia da Força Aérea) and uses the Neiva T-25 and the well known Embraer T-27 Tucano for basic instruction. Like the F-5, the A-1 is under a MLU (Mid Life Upgrade) program as well, this upgrade giving a high commonality between the avionics of the A-1M (MLU aircraft designation), the F-5M and the newly introduced Embraer A/T-29. The Army General Staff (Estado-Maior do Exército-EME) directs training and operations. mi.) of land and patrol 4.4 million km2 (around 1.7 million sq. The Brazilian Air Force has taken delivery of the first modernized E-99 airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft from Embraer. The Third Army was also important because of its shared border with Argentina (Brazil's traditional rival in Latin America) and Uruguay. While the Minas Gerais was not considered likely to be replaced until the next century, it was nonetheless decommissioned in 2001 following the purchase of the French aircraft carrier Foch. It signed Decree 200, of 25 February 1967, that the Ministry of the Armed Forces foresaw the promotion of studies to elaborate the law project creating. Maritime patrol, SAR, helicopters transport roles and Navy support; III FAE (III Força Aérea) This listing allows you to trace back a particular nation's aviation history in reverse-chronological order. In Brazil, until 1999, the three Armed Forces remained as independent ministries. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. The internal command structure determines all promotions through the rank of colonel. Although no military coups occurred during the 67 years of the Brazilian Empire, the Republican period experienced 4 military coups d'état in the 75 years between 1889 and 1964. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. The Geostationary Defense and Strategic Communications Satellites or SGDC, are geostationary communication satellites, created with the objective of operating strategic military, government and civil communications, also offering broadband internet throughout the national territory. The ACFA is involved with more immediate, day-to-day problems. About This Source - Al Jazeera English. In 1994 Mário César Flores, a former minister of navy, declared in an interview that the navy would be hard-pressed to defend Minas Gerais in a conflict. It operates A-4KU. Stored in a FAB maintenance area in São Paulo, the three fighters are part of a batch of 11 second-hand aircraft purchased from Jordan in 2009. According to Article 91 of the constitution, the CDN is "the consultative body of the president of the republic in matters related to national sovereignty and the defense of the democratic state." Despite the up-or-out system, under President José Sarney the army became top-heavy as generals began to occupy many positions that previously had been reserved for colonels. The Brazilian Air Force (Portuguese: Força Aérea Brasileira, FAB) is the air branch of the Brazilian Armed Forces and one of the three national uniformed services. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. The upgrade is being carried out by Embraer and Elbit; it includes a new avionics suite, a full glass cockpit with three MFDs, HOTAS configuration and a new multimode radar, the Italian Grifo F. The first F-5EM was handed over on September 21, 2005, and it is scheduled at a rate of two aircraft being delivered each month from that date onwards. In 2005 FAB received one Airbus ACJ, callsign "Air Force One" and dubbed as "Santos Dumont." The Brazilian territory corresponds to 47.3% of the South American continent,[40] and its land border is over 16.000 kilometers. [41], The SISFRON sensing means are deployed along the 16,886 kilometers of the border line, favoring the employment of organizations subordinate to the North, the Amazon, the West and Southern Military Commands.[41]. Some also serve as middle-level technicians. In 1991 there were 15 four-star, forty three-star, and 110 two-star generals. The move to occupy the Amazon and the short-term political implications of the army's reorganisation should not be overstated. There are three squadrons operating the A-1, one of them equipped with the RA-1 variant having a reconnaissance function as its primary role, but retaining all attack capabilities of the A-1. The FAB was formed when the Army and Navy air branch were merged into a single military force initially called "National Air Forces" in 1941. The Planalto Military Command (Comando Militar do Planalto-CMP), comprising the Federal District and Goiás State, and the Amazon Military Command (Comando Militar da Amazônia-CMA) supplemented the four armies. Since its inception, the JSAF has worked with the Central Administration of the Ministry of Defence, on the Esplanade of Ministries in Brasilia (DF). Its highly professional officer corps serves as a nucleus around which the trained service would be mobilized if required. The Brazilian Amazon sustains about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforests and plays vital roles in maintaining biodiversity, regional hydrology and climate, and terrestrial carbon storage. [45], See Articles 102 and 148 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1824, https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2019/01/11/bolsonaro-participa-em-brasilia-da-troca-de-comando-do-exercito.ghtml, "Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2019", Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, "Total Available Active Military Manpower by Country", "Brazilian Federal Constitution in English", Military service age and obligation in Brazil, http://www.senado.gov.br/JORNAL/arquivos_jornal/arquivosPdf/080331.pdf, "Especial – NOTÍCIAS – Uma nova agenda militar", "People's Daily Online – Bolivia bans Argentina from reselling gas to Chile", "Litoral brasileiro – Geografia – UOL Educação", "Especial – NOTÍCIAS – Os pés de barro de um gigante", "Brazil Is Leading a Largely South American Mission to Haiti", "História 2 Ano: 17 – Formação dos países platinos", "O DIA Online – União cortará tropa do Rio", "Cerimônia marca inauguração das instalações do Centro de Operações Espaciais", "Brasil lança satélite que permitirá acesso à banda larga em áreas remotas", "Brazil to order second dual civil-military communications satellite", International Institute for Strategic Studies, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brazilian_Armed_Forces&oldid=993521059, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 18–45 years of age for compulsory military service, This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 01:36. 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