Southern Ocean, also called Antarctic Ocean, the southern portions of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans and their tributary seas surrounding Antarctica. Canada alone is home to 60% of the world’s polar bear population and 75% of the narwhal population. In the summer, much of the water around Antarctica becomes freshwater from these melting ice-sheets and glaciers. The seafloor is subdivided by three great ridges that run almost parallel across the top of the Earth between Greenland and Siberia. While the most obvious difference between the Arctic and the Antarctic is their geographical location, there are many more reasons the two are on opposite sides of the globe. The Antarctic (or Antarctica) Circle is one of the five major circles or parallels of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. Geographically, the Arctic is made up of portions of eight different countries: Canada, Greenland, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, and the United States. The Arctic is largely sea, with the north pole over 400 miles away from the nearest land mass. The Arctic encompasses a vast frozen ocean around the North Pole, surrounded by the landmasses of North America, Greenland, Svalbard, Northern Europe and Russia, while Antarctica is a frozen continent anchored by the South Pole and surrounded by vast open oceans. It consists of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding land, including all of Greenland and Spitsbergen, and the northern parts of Alaska, Canada, Norway, and Russia. Although sea ice moves around the Arctic basin, it tends to stay in the cold Arctic waters. Both the Arctic and the Antarctic are vast and remote, considered the last untamed wildernesses in the world. Required fields are marked *. 14 : Mediterranean Deep Brines : 2011, Exp. Many travellers enjoy experiencing local culture when visiting the Arctic. A cold desolate continent covered in miles of ice and snow year-round, the south pole of Antarctica … Recent sampling efforts and following metagenomics have shed light on the global ocean microbial diversity and function, yet the microbiota of polar regions has not been included in such global analyses. These changes largely result from the geographic differences mentioned above, namely Antarctic sea ice’s distance from the pole (sea ice can melt ba… The total surface area roughly doubles each winter as sea-ice forms around the coasts. The Arctic and Antarctic are the two most geographically distant bioregions on earth. Also, a belt of floating mass of ice debris called the ice pack surrounds the continent of Antarctica. Penguins are only found in the southern hemisphere in Antarctica, South America and the southern cape of Africa. Take a journey through time in our next module », Mailing List | Feedback | Glossary | For Teachers | About Us | Contact © 2005 Dive and Discover is a registered trademark of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Exp. Your email address will not be published. The Antarctic is the South Pole and is the Southern-most part of the world. It is the fifth largest land mass on the planet. Antarctica is the ice-covered continent that surrounds the South Pole and is itself surrounded by the Southern Ocean. • Arctic is the region on the top-most corner of the globe while Antarctic at the bottom most corner. Arctic/Antarctica Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent. You can find a large population of whales, including the largest animal to ever live, the blue whale. Antarctic Circle, parallel, or line of latitude around the Earth, at 66°30′ S. The Arctic has a rich culture. 15 : Dark Life at Deep-Sea Vents : 2014, Take a journey through time in our next module. GET OUR BROCHURE As in the Arctic, SBIs over Antarctica are more frequent, deeper, and stronger in winter and autumn than in spring and summer . In fact, the largest land animal on the continent is a wingless insect. Antarctic Circle. | In summer, the ice breaks ups and the enormous ice-sheets crack and split. February and March mark the best times for whale sightings. The Land: Arctic vs Antarctica Landscapes of the Arctic. However, both regions have similar seasonal patterns. The North Pole is a point in the middle of the Arctic Ocean that is permanently covered in sea ice. This program specifically explored the importance of U.S. research efforts in and around the continent, the unique role of the U.S. Coast Guard in supporting these endeavors, as well as U.S. diplomatic interests and efforts in a time of dynamic change. Sea ice differs between the Arctic and Antarctic, primarily because of their different geography. Between Canada and the Alpha Ridge lies the largest of the Arctic sub-basins, the Canada Abyssal Plain, a sweeping, broad area with an average depth of 12,000 feet that includes much of the Arctic Ocean. Antarctica is the fifth largest continent and the largest to have no permanent residence. When choosing polar destinations, Antarctica is often top of mind for many people but the Arctic offers distinct and incredible travel experiences. Operation Highjump, officially titled The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program, 1946–1947, was a United States Navy operation organized by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd Jr., USN (Ret), Officer in Charge, Task Force 68, and led by Rear Admiral … The Arctic is a region of the planet, north of the Arctic Circle, and includes the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Baffin Island, other smaller northern islands, and the far northern parts of Europe, Russia (Siberia), Alaska and Canada. Some of the land parts of the Arctic, like Greenland, are covered with ice sheets; others are not glaciated, and have lush tundra. The ice drifts around the polar basin under the influence of winds and currents, breaking up during blizzards and then refreezing. | The breath-taking scenery and iconic wildlife of the Arctic and Antarctic are a must-see for adventurous travellers from around the world. If it’… The Arctic Circle is the southernmost latitude in the Northern Hemisphere at which the … In the Arctic, you can experience 24-hours of sunshine in the spring and summer – May to August. When it comes to visiting Antarctica, the majority of travel options are via cruise. Antarctica is the coldest, driest, and windiest of Earth's seven continents, and 98 percent of the continent is covered by ice with no tundra, trees or bushes. Here a metagenomic study of seawater samples (n = 60) collected from different depths at 28 locations … Floes are more prone to converge, or bump into each other, and pile up into thick ridges… LEGAL The Pole Abyssal Plain, an elongated trough of deep water, lies between the Arctic Ridge and the basin’s dominant feature, the Lomonosov Ridge—a mountain chain that averages 10,000 feet high above the abyssal plain and in places comes to within 3000 ft of the surface. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. Numerous populations have inhabited the Arctic for thousands of years. In summer, migratory birds and other wildlife come to the Arctic to raise their young. Antarctica is a continent located around the South Pole. As a result, the sea ice that forms in the Arctic is not as mobile as sea ice in the Antarctic. The primary difference between the Arctic and Antarctica is geographical. TOUR IQALUIT. The distance between the two polar regions is 20,117 kms (12,500 mi). Hover your mouse over the image below to see where the ridges and plains are. To the north, Greenland has the second largest polar ice cap next to Antarctica. Sea ice waxes and wanes with the seasons, but minimum and maximum extents rarely match from year to year; over years and decades, summer and winter extents vary. Arctic & Antarctic. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. They are often confused as they have similar names. Median Antarctic SBI f, Δz, and ΔT are 58%, 197 m, and 2.6 K, respectively. Cultural experiences in the Arctic may include visiting remote communities with historic Viking and Inuit settlements, throat singing or other cultural demonstrations. It is also very deep, reaching more than 4,000 meters in some areas. The north and south polar regions follow similar patterns for daylight throughout the year, just at opposite times of the year. | The Nansen-Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge), an active seafloor spreading center stretches across the basin north of western Russia. It is also home to many species of whales like narwhal, beluga, bowhead, and some orca whales. Polar habitats are located on the very top and very bottom of the Earth – the North Pole, which is called the Arctic, and the South Pole, which is the continent of Antarctica. The Antarctic is 98% covered in ice. First, the size of plants and their structures make survival possible. It is located 700 km (430 mi) north of the nearest point of land, the northern tip of Greenland. Some parts of the Arctic are covered by ice (sea ice, glacial ice, or snow) year-round, and nearly all parts of the Arctic experience long periods with some form of ice on the surface.Average January temperatures range from about −40 to 0 °C (−40 to 32 °F), and winter temperatures can drop below −50 °C (−58 °F) over large parts of the Arctic. There are also Antarctic fly and cruise options for those that opt to skip the tumultuous Drake Passage. The Hollow Earth Theory. Interacting with local Inuit and learning about traditional practices is also a highlight for many guests on Arctic Safaris. Antarctica is mostly an ice sheet, with the south pole located some 800 miles from the sea. The Arctic is named for the north polar constellation “Arktos”—Greek for “bear.” It is 14.5 million square km (5.5 million square miles)—almost exactly the same size as Antarctica—and has been inhabited by humans for close to 20,000 years. Your email address will not be published. This is when penguin eggs will begin hatching. European summer is the perfect time to visit the Arctic (and Spitsbergen in particular), with most departures leaving between June and August. If you were to stand at either pole, the view would be superficially very similar, there would be a great expanse of flat (ish) white snow and ice as far as the eye can see with few or no other features to break up the vista. Interested in one of our trips? The South Pole is a point on the giant ice sheet located 1,300 km (800 mi) from the nearest open sea at the Bay of Whales. Antarctic Circle. | While Antarctica is nearly completely ice, the Artic has mountains, hills, plains, rivers, tundra, and the taiga, the world’s largest biome. You can get chances to see the Northern Lights from late-August to April. Do you have a question about getting here? Photo by Chris Linder, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The two landscapes however are made up in very different ways. Subscribe to get an inside look at the Arctic from anywhere. But the wildlife, landscape and local culture really sets the Arctic and Antarctic apart. With a height of 2,835 m (9,300 ft) above sea level, people have been known to get attitude sickness at the South Pole. LEGAL Here they can be found huddled by the hundreds in their colonies, or out fishing in the southern waters. Similar adaptations help plants, algae, fungi, and lichens survive in both the Arctic and Antarctic. The Arctic is a semi-enclosed ocean, almost completely surrounded by land. Besides playful penguins it is home to several seal species, including leopard seals and southern elephant seals, and sea lions. Location, Landmass & Access. Both polar destinations can be extreme but spectacular for travellers seeking a unique trip. CONTACT US Contact our Arctic Travel Advisors today to find out how you can get opportunities to view wildlife including narwhal, polar bears and more, among spectacular landscapes and experience the rich culture of the Arctic. Antarctic cruises provide opportunities to see whales and other wildlife. The North Pole is a point in the middle of On the Canadian side of this ridge the Fletcher and Wrangel Abyssal plains form a deep, irregular basin between the Lomonosov and the Alpha Ridges. The national parks of Baffin Island, Auyuittuq and Sirmilik National Parks, are some of the most spectacular natural areas in the world. These icebergs will float past Nunavut, so often that the community of Qikiqtarjuaq has an area known as “iceberg alley.” The iceberg that sunk the Titanic came from here! Its only significance lies in its relationship to the seasonal behaviour of light, which is of only limited importance and has nothing to…. The Arctic is located at the northernmost part of our planet. Antarctica does host anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 scientists each year to conducting research, and tourists from around the world, of course. CONTACT US Shown on the image above with a dashed red line, this parallel of latitude sits at approximately 66.33° south of the Equator. | Key Difference: The most obvious difference between Antarctic and Arctic is that Antarctic is located in the southern hemisphere and encompasses the South Pole region, whereas Arctic is located in the northern hemisphere and encompasses the North Pole region. From October to March, large patches of the Arctic Ocean are frozen making them almost impossible to navigate. These stable, rugged and comfortable crafts are an ideal way to … | The Arctic: Cruising season is determined largely by the sea ice. The Arctic is not the Antarctic and the Antarctic is not the Arctic.” Antarctica is surrounded by the vast Southern Ocean, which is soaking up much of the atmosphere’s excess heat. In the Arctic you can find many animals roaming the land such as: Arctic fox, Arctic hares, seals, walrus, caribou, reindeer, musk ox, lemmings, squirrels, many species of birds, and of course, polar bears. You can get some of the best chances to view and photograph iconic animals like polar bears and narwhal on Arctic Safaris including Narwhal & Polar Bear Safari. Polar bears can be seen almost year-round in different areas of the Arctic. The Northwest Passage alone boasts a fascinating history of exploration. Geographically, the Arctic is made up of portions of eight different countries: Canada, Greenland, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland, and the United States. This forms giant icebergs that melt as they float north throughout the summer. The polar regions offer incredible, life-changing experiences in destinations that few have visited. Let us know what you’re searching for and we’ll do our best to find what you need. That is Arctic is at the North pole and Antarctic at the South pole. With Jakobshavn Isbræ being the largest glacier in the Northern Hemisphere, this is where most of the icebergs in the Canadian Arctic start. Arctic Kingdom Inc. – PO Box 6117, Iqaluit NU X0A 0H0 – Canada, +1 (888) 737-6818 | adventures@arctickingdom.com, COPYRIGHT 2021 Arctic Kingdom It consists of the Arctic Ocean and surrounding land, including all of Greenland and Spitsbergen, and the northern parts of … Antarctica is home to several marine animals. Note: Choosing between the Arctic and Antarctica will depend heavily on what time of year you’re able to travel. Antarctica, on the other hand, is a continent, covered by a very thick ice cap and surrounded by a rim of sea ice and the Southern Ocean. These include Inuit of North America, the Sami of Northern Europe and the Yakuts of Siberia who have long inhabited the Arctic. These areas have large mammals, such as caribou, bears, wolves and foxes, and a variety of plants. While there are also cruise options for the Arctic, land-based Arctic safaris also offers the incredible opportunity to experience wildlife up-close. | Small plants and shallow root systems compensate for the thin layer of soil, and small leaves minimize the amount of water lost through the leaf surface. It is mostly covered by pack-ice (frozen sea-water) averaging 2-3 meters thick. This is also the time to witness wildlife migrations, including narwhal and beluga at the floe edge. For those wondering what makes these polar opposites so special, here are the key differences: The most frequently asked question about these two poles is “what wildlife can I see?”. Antarctica experiences its summer in January. The biggest celebrities of the North and South poles are the polar bears, narwhal and penguins, both exclusive to one of the hemispheres. The Arctic Circle, a parallel of latitude, has little value in understanding the distribution and limits of the marine Arctic flora and fauna. In addition to soaring icebergs, the landscapes of the Arctic include dramatic mountains, fiords and rolling tundra. ("Perennial" refers to the oldest and thickest sea ice.) The Arctic includes parts of eight countries – Canada, the United States, Iceland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia It is 14.5 million square km (5.5 million square miles)—almost exactly the same size as Antarctica—and has been inhabited by humans for close to 20,000 years. Its coastline is made up of icy mountain glaciers and smooth ice-sheet. Arctic & Antarctic Location. The Arctic is a circle of land masses intermingled by the Arctic Ocean, while Antarctica is a solid island of ice. 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